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### Feeding CNN FFT of an image, a dumb idea?

My dataset consists of about 40,000 200x200px grayscale images of centered blobs bathed in noise and occasional artifacts like stripes other blobs of different shapes and sizes, fuzzy speckles and so ...
0answers
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### How to enforce action bounds between 0 & 1 in soft actor-critic algorithm?

In the paper "Soft Actor-Critic Algorithms and Applications", appendix C shows enforcing action bounds using the tanh squashing function which is in (-1, 1). I have action bounds in (0, 1), ...
1answer
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In Sutton & Barto's Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction page 63 the authors introduce the optimal state value function in the expression of the optimal action-value function as follows: $q_{*}(... 0answers 4 views ### Is it possible to have an immediate reward plus an expected reward with a multi armed bandit problem? I am studying by myself reinforcement learning, so I have a lot of doubts. I am looking now at the multi armed bandit problem and I was wondering if this has something to do with a markov decision ... 0answers 4 views ### Do bi-directional RNNs necessarily use 100% teacher forcing? I typically think of teacher forcing as optional when training an RNN. We may either: use the output of time-step$t$as the input to time-step$t+1$use the$(t+1)$th input as the input to time-... 0answers 7 views ### How is complex systems research interacting with AI research? Because future AI may produce emergent phenomena, and because these are probably gaps in our current understanding of this, it feels like complex systems may be an increasingly important research ... 0answers 5 views ### How to ensure that the ES-HyperNEAT algorithm generates an ANN in the substrate? I'm trying to implement the ES-HyperNEAT algorithm using the original paper, as well as the pseudocode provided in the official user page. Occasionally, the algorithm would be unable to generate a ... 0answers 10 views ### Why and when transformers are better than CNN's in sequence modeling tasks? Transformers have made a revolution in the domain of NLP and gave rise to a rapid boost of neural networks in a variety of language modelling problems, TTS and, recently, achieved competitive accuracy ... 1answer 29 views ### Would this count as a Transfer Learning approach? I have two datasets, Dataset 1(D1) and Dataset 2(D2). D1 has around 22000 samples, and D2 has around 8000 samples. What I am doing is that I train a Deep Neural Network model with around three layers ... 0answers 8 views ### What is “fill” algorithm used for image resizing and cropping I was going through this documentation directed by Codelab-Developer-Google. In order to resize an image, the notebook is using the "fill" algorithm. See the below code ... 0answers 8 views ### What is the state of the art in melody generation? Generative Adversarial Networks can generate realistic photos of people, such as thispersondoesnotexist.com. I wonder whether one can train an artificial intelligence on a batch of plain solo melodies ... 0answers 5 views ### A3C Agent (torch.multiprocessing.Process subclass) cannot learn or even update global model I implemented a the A3C algorithm as close to the original paper in a class based form using pytorch multiprocessing. The model doesn't seem to learn: the performance isn't increasing. I have built ... 0answers 8 views ### Gradient of Scalar objective cannot be efficiently calculated? Suppose we generate the vector output$y$from model$h(x, \theta)$, with input$x$and parameters$\theta. Reverse mode differentiation says that we can calculate the gradient \begin{align*} \... 0answers 9 views ### Morphing animal faces real-time to morph with human face I want to morph two images- a human face and a pet face. I know there is enough support for human face detection and landmark in real-time. What about pets (dog and cat only)? Is it possible to detect ... 0answers 15 views ### Fine tuning a BERT model for text classification An article written by Jay Alammar (http://jalammar.github.io/a-visual-guide-to-using-bert-for-the-first-time/) on using a BERT transformer for text classification. The article mentions the following ... 1answer 30 views ### How do very rare words tend to have very high PMI values? Consider the following formulation for pointwise mutual information (PMI): $$\text{PMI}(w, c) = \dfrac{p(w, c)}{p(w)p(c)}$$ Suppose there areW$words with$C$context words. Then one can write in ... 0answers 20 views ### Where does the so-called 'loss' / 'loss function' fit into the idea of a perceptron / artificial neuron (as presented in the figure)? I am currently studying the textbook Neural Networks and Deep Learning by Charu C. Aggarwal. Chapter 1.2.1.3 Choice of Activation and Loss Functions presents the following figure:$\overline{X}$is ... 0answers 17 views ### What is the best way to generate German paraphrases? What is the best method to generate German paraphrases? The state-of-the-art are seq2seq transformer models, like T5, but they only work for English sentences. I found the multilingual MT5 model, but ... 0answers 12 views ### Seq2Seq Models not used for NLP - input to the Decoder? I am looking into Seq2Seq models but using it to make multi-step predictions of factory data and I am getting a little confused with the inputs to the Decoder model. Correct me if I am wrong, but the ... 0answers 20 views ### Identifying rotating and resizing letters with background noise I'm trying to complete a certain type of captcha for academic purposes. Here is what it looks like: Between captchas the calligraphy of the letters is the same, but the letters may be resized and ... 0answers 6 views ### Characterize the high probability bound for learning algorithm Suppose we have a dataset$S = (x_1, \dots x_n)$drawn i.i.d from distribution$D$, a learning algorithm$A$and error function$err$. The performance of$A$is therefore defined by the error/... 0answers 10 views ### How could an attacker poision the training data? I came across the following definition of Backdoor attack (in this paper): These attacks are accomplished in two steps. First, special patterns are embedded in the targeted model during the training ... 0answers 11 views ### How could poisoning attacks be prevented in adversarial Machine Learning How we could prevent poisoning attacks in adversarial Machine Learning? I read it from this link and other sources. As per my understanding, poisoning could be done after the ML algorithm has been ... 0answers 13 views ### What is the best way to train neural network with imbalanced mixed data (images and structured data)? I have structured data and image data to solve a regression problem. One sample of structured data can be related to N images. If I use only structured data, I get decent performance, but not enough ... 0answers 7 views ### Which one i should use for captioning? I have a model that doing a classification and detection. Each one of them has its own class and i need to do captioning so i ... 0answers 8 views ### LSTM Forecast Evolution I have a confusion about the way the LSTM networks work when forecasting with an horizon that is not finite but I'm rather searching for a prediction in whatever time in future. In physical terms I ... 0answers 18 views ### What is the fundamental difference between running a GBM and running a random forest? I am using Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) models and Random Forest (RF) models as a tool in my thesis in ecological modelling, and I am really struggling with the theory behind it. So, I apologize if ... 0answers 10 views ### CFD Reinforcement Learning Topology optimization wind tunnel I want to create a reinforcement learning environment, designed for win tunnel simulations, where for each iteration a deep convolutional model could receive the 3D vector/scalar fields from the past ... 0answers 9 views ### To denote a training example should I use row vector or column vector? This code accesses the first 3 examples in the iris data set, from sklearn.datasets import load_iris iris = load_iris() print(iris.data[:3]) and gives ... 0answers 14 views ### Product of probabilities raised to own powers that can be used for entropy calculation Suppose$X$is a random variable taking$k$values. $$Val(X) = \{x_1, x_2, x_3, \cdots, x_k\}$$ Then what is the following expression of$N(X)$called in literature? What does it signify?$$N(X) = \... 1answer 36 views ### Why (commonly/only)$\log$to squash frequencies? Term frequency and inverse document frequency are well known terms in information retrieval. I am presenting the definitions for both from p:12,13 of Vector Semantics and Embeddings On term frequency ... 0answers 15 views ### Text matching: fuzzy names matching with learning I'm new to AI/ML and I want to research and learn about techniques that could help me to solve this complex task. Any hint would be appreciated. Let me explain it with an example: Let's look at two ... 0answers 9 views ### Metric Learning with l2 distance and contrastive loss is not working I am trying metric learning with L2 distance and contrastive loss with a pre-trained language transformer as an embedding extractor. I ran my model for 20 epochs, and the loss is decreasing. But when ... 1answer 14 views ### What to do when you have massive amount of data but you don't have enough computation power for training a machine learning model? For example, I have a massive amount of data, but I have limited computational resources and time to train on the full data. Other cases may include, I have huge amounts of 360-degree images, where I ... 1answer 33 views ### How to detect entities in Montezuma's Revenge environment I'm thinking of implementing "Hierarchical Deep Reinforcement Learning: Integrating Temporal Abstraction and Intrinsic Motivation" paper. In this paper authors used some custom object ... 0answers 9 views ### Does the transformers model (in “Attention is All You Need”) exclude the encoder in language modelling tasks? The language model I am referring to is the one outlined in "Attention is All You Need": My understanding is that when the task is translation, the encoder's input could be "Hi, my ... 1answer 42 views ### What is the difference between the definition of “accuracy” in machine learning and federated learning? What is the difference between the definition of "accuracy" in machine learning and federated learning? In particular, how is the accuracy calculated in the following paper: eq (3.12) https:... 0answers 9 views ### Inconsistent Classification Accuracy between Classification Network & Object Detection I have been working on an object detection and classification problem, and I am having understanding a discrepancy in my results. I am try to detect and classify 2 classes. These objects are ... 0answers 35 views ### ADVANTAGE ACTOR CRITIC WITH TWO ACTIONS What is the Loss Of Advantage Actor Critic in case there are two actions taken place SIMULTANEOUSLY. Is it ok to be written in this way ? please if anyone knows references addressing this matter, that ... 0answers 13 views ### Good metrics and losses to use for Sequence-to-Sequence model for time-series prediction/forecasting I am developing a sequence-to-sequence LSTM model for multi-step time series forecasting. I have the basic model working, so now I need to drill down on which loss function and evaluation metrics to ... 0answers 7 views ### Increased performance using monotonic constraints with neural networks I see that with the xgboost library, we can tell the training process that some features are necessarily monotonic with the model's output - https://xgboost.readthedocs.io/en/latest/tutorials/... 1answer 33 views ### How to prove the second form of Bellman's equation? I'd like to prove this "second form" of Bellman's equation:$v(s)=\mathbb{E}[R_{t+1}+\gamma v(S_{t+1})|S_{t}=s]$starting from Bellman's equation:$v(s)=\mathbb{E}[G_{t}|S_{t}=s]$where the ... 0answers 29 views ### How is the bias added after the convolution in a CNN? I'm having trouble understanding how bias is added to the feature extraction convolution. I've seen people either refer to the bias as a single number that changes per filter or the whole matrix that ... 0answers 8 views ### How to use Tensorflow Recommenders' Retrieval task with Keras data generators I've recently started working with the package to build recommender systems, and so far, I've successfully built a Ranking task that takes the inputs from a Keras Data Generator. However, I could not ... 0answers 13 views ### Are there any good references that describe the equations of the forward pass of Graph Neural Networks? I am trying to program Graph Neural Network from scratch. Can the community please suggest a good reference/s to read about the equations of the forward pass in Graph Neural Networks, especially in ... 1answer 58 views ### How do sigmoid functions make it so that the prediction$\hat{y}$indicates the probability that the observed value,$y$, is$1\$?

I am currently studying the textbook Neural Networks and Deep Learning by Charu C. Aggarwal. Chapter 1.2.1.3 Choice of Activation and Loss Functions says the following: The choice of activation ...
0answers
10 views

### How do I quantify the difference in sample efficiency for two almost similar methods?

I am comparing my coded TD3 (Twin-Delayed DDPG) and the same TD3 (same hyperparameters) but with Priority Replay Buffer instead of a normal Replay Buffer. From what I have read, PER (Priority ...
0answers
25 views

### How can I add a Sequential CNN layer on top of BERT model?

Information I'm working on a binary classification task and used BERT model from transformers library to do it using the custom model below: ...
0answers
22 views

### Why Word2Vec is called a neural model if no neural network is used in it?

Word2Vec model does not use any neural network. It uses logistic regression only. Consider the following paragraph from p:18 of Vector Semantics and Embeddings We’ll see how to do neural ...
0answers
9 views

### Is strided 2d pooling using only reshape and slice operations possible

Is it possible to do strided 2d pooling using only reshape and slice operations? In a nutshell, can you do strided 2d pooling using only np.reshape and slice (eg. <...

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