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What does "backprop" mean? Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?

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"Backprop" is the same as "backpropagation": it's just a shorter way to say it. It is sometimes abbreviated as "BP".

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'Backprop' is short for 'backpropagation of error' in order to avoid confusion when using backpropagation term.

Basically backpropagation refers to the method for computing the gradient of the case-wise error function with respect to the weights for a feedforward networkWerbos. And backprop refers to a training method that uses backpropagation to compute the gradient.

So we can say that a backprop network is a feedforward network trained by backpropagation.

The 'standard backprop' term is a euphemism for the generalized delta rule which is most widely used supervised training method.

Source: What is backprop? at FAQ of Usenet newsgroup comp.ai.neural-nets

References:

  • Werbos, P. J. (1974). Beyond Regression: New Tools for Prediction and Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences. PhD thesis, Harvard University.
  • Werbos, P. J. (1994). The Roots of Backpropagation: From Ordered Derivatives to Neural Networks and Political Forecasting,Wiley Interscience.
  • Bertsekas, D. P. (1995), Nonlinear Programming, Belmont, MA: Athena Scientific, ISBN 1-886529-14-0.
  • Bertsekas, D. P. and Tsitsiklis, J. N. (1996), Neuro-Dynamic Programming, Belmont, MA: Athena Scientific, ISBN 1-886529-10-8.
  • Polyak, B.T. (1964), "Some methods of speeding up the convergence of iteration methods," Z. Vycisl. Mat. i Mat. Fiz., 4, 1-17.
  • Polyak, B.T. (1987), Introduction to Optimization, NY: Optimization Software, Inc.
  • Reed, R.D., and Marks, R.J, II (1999), Neural Smithing: Supervised Learning in Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-18190-8.
  • Rumelhart, D.E., Hinton, G.E., and Williams, R.J. (1986), "Learning internal representations by error propagation", in Rumelhart, D.E. and McClelland, J. L., eds. (1986), Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Volume 1, 318-362, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Werbos, P.J. (1974/1994), The Roots of Backpropagation, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Includes Werbos's 1974 Harvard Ph.D. thesis, Beyond Regression.
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Yes, as Franck has rightly put, "backprop" means backpropogation, which is frequently used in the domain of neural networks for error optimization.

For a detailed explanation, I would point out this tutorial on the concept of backpropogation by a very good book of Michael Nielsen.

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