As far as I can tell (correct me if I'm wrong), Alphazero (with MCTS and neural network heuristic function RL) is the state of the art training method for turn based, deterministic, perfect information, complete information, two player, zero sum games.

But what is the state of the art for turn based, imperfect information games, that have 2 players, complete information, and is zero sum? (Deterministic or stochastic.) Examples include Battleship and most 2 player card games.

Are there standard games, or other tests by which this is measured? Is the criteria I offered for type of game not specific enough to narrow the answer down properly?

If the state of the art involves supervised learning (data set of manually played games), then what's the state of the art for pure reinforcement learning, if there is one?

  • $\begingroup$ Games with more than 2 players are often a very different setting on just that basis (for instance many strategies are not stable if the game rules allow two players to conspire against another one), so maybe worth focusing on either that part, or the imperfect information part $\endgroup$ Oct 3, 2019 at 20:12
  • $\begingroup$ @NeilSlater If I don't include multiple players and just focus on imperfect information, wouldn't there be a different answer for the single player case vs multiple players? $\endgroup$ Oct 3, 2019 at 20:14
  • $\begingroup$ Yes there would potentially be a different answer. If you are looking for both multiple (3 or more) players and imperfect information (player A can know something that player B does not), then please specify that clearly, perhaps with better examples. For instance, Battleship is usually a two-player game - are you considering some 3+ player variant of it? $\endgroup$ Oct 3, 2019 at 20:20
  • $\begingroup$ @NeilSlater Ok, I was hoping the answer wouldn't be too different for any number of players > 1, but if it is, then I prefer the answer for 2 player games. I'll edit my question to specify that. $\endgroup$ Oct 3, 2019 at 20:25
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    $\begingroup$ Some 3+ player games that are designed like competitive races, will behave very similarly to 2 player games. Others, such as where players can choose to block or attack another players' position, open themselves up to strategies based around group allegiances, and these can become complicated. $\endgroup$ Oct 3, 2019 at 20:29


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