Are artificial neural networks based on human neural networks?
Additionally, are the current computers capable of handling the power our brain has with the same speed?
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Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are loosely based on human neural networks. However, there are many aspects of the human brain that are not modelled in ANNs.
First of all, ANNs have an input, which is followed by an output. Our brain doesn't work like this. We have many inputs, many outputs, and many cycles that loop in our brain. There's no simple input-output - end of the program. We think even if there is no 'input' (e.g. sleep). In current technology, such a thing is not ready. If you look at the Robot Sophia as another example - she acts like Siri: input-output. You speak, she responds. When in the future it will be possible, that robots will get a pulse, and start a process without an end, then we can call it 'thinking like a human' in a philosophical meaning.
The second point is the size and processing power of our brain. Billions, if not more, neurons, and trillions, and more connections are in our brain. On YouTube you find neuronal networks with 6 neurons, some have 100. Maybe there's a secret military agency that has a network with million networks - we can't say. Entire rooms are hosted to simulate our brain which fits in just one head.
But - to end this respond philosophically: In theory, humans are also machines. Advanced, but still machines. Software that runs on a biological hardware. So any intelligence may be comparable. But since you are mentioning the human part - the answer would be probably no.