In this VAE formula, why do $p$ and $q$ have the same parameters?

In $$\log p_{\theta}(x^1,...,x^N)=D_{KL}(q_{\theta}(z|x^i)||p_{\phi}(z|x^i))+\mathbb{L}(\phi,\theta;x^i),$$ why does $$p(x^1,...,x^N)$$ and $$q(z|x^i)$$ have the same parameter $$\theta?$$

Given that $$p$$ is just the probability of the observed data and $$q$$ is the approximation of the posterior, shouldn't they be different distributions and thus their parameters different?

I will try to answer your questions directly (but I guess I won't be able to), otherwise, this can become quite confusing, given the inconsistencies that can be found across different sources.

In $$logp_{\theta}(x^1,...,x^N)=D_{KL}(q_{\theta}(z|x^i)||p_{\phi}(z|x^i))+\mathbb{L}(\phi,\theta;x^i)$$ why is $$\theta$$ and param for $$p$$ and $$q$$?

In a few words, your equation is wrong because it uses the letters $$\phi$$ and $$\theta$$ inconsistently.

If you look more carefully at the right-hand side of your equation, you will notice that $$q_{\theta}$$ has different parameters, i.e. $$\theta$$, than $$p_{\phi}$$, which has parameters $$\phi$$, so $$p$$ and $$q$$ have different parameters, and this should be the case, because they are represented by different neural networks in the case of the VAE. However, the left-hand side uses $$\theta$$ as the parameters of $$p$$ (while the right-hand side uses $$\phi$$ to index $$p$$), so this should already suggest that the equation is not correct (as you correctly thought).

In the case of the VAE, $$\phi$$ usually represents the parameters (or weights) of the encoder neural network (NN), while $$\theta$$ usually represents the parameters of the decoder NN (or vice-versa, but you should just be consistent, which is often not the case in your equation). In fact, in the VAE paper, in equation 3, the authors use $$\phi$$ to represent the parameters of the encoder $$q$$, while $$\theta$$ is used to denote the parameters of the decoder $$p$$.

So, if you follow the notation in the VAE paper, the ELBO can actually be written something like

\begin{align} \mathcal{L}(\phi,\theta; \mathbf{x}) &= \mathbb{E}_{\tilde{z} \sim q_{\phi}(\mathbf{z} \mid \mathbf{x})} \left[ \log p_{\theta} (\mathbf{x} \mid \mathbf{z}) \right] - \operatorname{KL} \left(q_{\phi}(\mathbf{z} \mid \mathbf{x}) \| p_{\theta}(\mathbf{z}) \right) \tag{1} \label{1} \end{align}

The ELBO loss $$\mathcal{L}(\phi,\theta; \mathbf{x})$$ has both parameters (of the encoder and decoder), which will be optimized jointly. Note that I have ignored the indices in the observations $$\mathbf{x}$$ (for simplicity), while, in the VAE paper, they are present. Furthermore, note that, both in \ref{1} and in the VAE paper, we use bold letters (because these objects are usually vectors), i.e. $$\mathbf{x}$$ and $$\mathbf{z}$$, rather than $$x$$ and $$z$$ (like in your equation).

Note also that, even though $$p_{\theta}(\mathbf{z})$$ is indexed by $$\theta$$, in reality, this may be an un-parametrized distribution (e.g. a Gaussian with mean $$0$$ and variance $$1$$), i.e. not a family of distributions. The use of the index $$\theta$$ in $$p_{\theta}(\mathbf{z})$$ comes from the (implicit) assumption that both $$p_{\theta}(\mathbf{z})$$ and $$p_{\theta} (\mathbf{x} \mid \mathbf{z})$$ come from the same family of distributions (e.g. a family of Gaussians). In fact, if you consider the family of all Gaussian distributions, then $$p_{\theta}(\mathbf{z}) = \mathcal{N}(\mathbf{0}, \mathbf{I})$$ also belongs to that family. But $$\theta$$ and $$\phi$$ are also used to denote the parameters (or weights) of the networks, so this becomes understanbly confusing. (To understand equation 10 of the VAE paper, see https://stats.stackexchange.com/a/370048/82135).

Why does $$p(x^1,...,x^N)$$ and $$q(z|x^i)$$ have the same parameter $$\theta?$$

This is wrong, in fact. If you look at equation 1 of the VAE paper, they use $$\theta$$ to denote the parameters of $$p(\mathbf{x})$$, i.e. $$p_{\theta}(\mathbf{x})$$, while the parameters of the encoder are $$\phi$$, i.e. $$q_{\phi}(\mathbf{z} \mid \mathbf{x}$$).

Cause $$p$$ is just the probability of the observed data and $$q$$ is the approximation of the posterior so shouldn't they be different distributions and their parameters different?

Yes.