# Have any AI systems yet been developed that can knowingly lie to / deceive a human?

AI systems today are very capable machines, and recently the area of Natural Language Processing and Response has been exploding with innovation, as well as the fundamental algorithmic structure of AI machines.

I am asking if, given these recent breakthroughs, have any AI systems been developed that are able to (preferably with some measure of success) knowingly lie to humans about facts that it knows?

Note, what I'm asking goes beyond the canonical discussions of the Turing Test. I'm asking of machines that can 'understand' facts and then formulate a lie against this fact, perhaps using other facts to produce a believable 'cover-up' as part of the lie.

E.G.: CIA supercomputer is stolen by spies and they try to use the computer to do things, but the computer keeps saying it's missing dependencies though it really isn't or gives correct-looking but wrong answers knowingly. Or gives incorrect location of a person, knowing that the person frequents some place but isn't there at the moment. Doesn't have to be this sophisticated, of course.

The Saturday Papers: Would AI Lie To You? is a blog post summarizing a research paper called Toward Characters Who Observe, Tell, Misremember, and Lie. This research paper details some researchers' plans to implement "mental models" for NPCs in video games. NPCs will gather information about the world, and convey that knowledge to other people (including human players). However, they will also "misremember" that knowledge (either "mutating" that knowledge or just forgetting about it), or even lie:

As a subject of conversation gets brought up, a character may convey false information—more precisely, information that she herself does not believe—to her interlocutor. Currently, this happens probabilistically according to a character’s affinity toward the interlocutor, and the misinformation is randomly chosen.

Later on in the research paper, they detailed their future plans for lying:

Currently, lies are only stored in the knowledge of characters who receive them, but we plan to have characters who tell them also keep track of them so that they can reason about past lies when constructing subse- quent ones. While characters currently only lie about other characters, we plan to also implement self-centered lying (DePaulo 2004), e.g., characters lying about their job titles or relationships with other characters. Finally, we envision characters who discover they have been lied to revising their affinities toward the liars, or even confronting them.

The research paper also detailed how other video game developers attempted to create lying NPCs, with an emphasis on how their system differs:

TALE-SPIN characters may lie to one another (Meehan 1976, 183-84), though rather arbitrarily, as in our current system implementation. GOLEM implements a blocks world variant in which agents deceive others to achieve goals (Castelfranchi, Falcone, and De Rosis 1998), while Mouth of Truth uses a probabilistic representation of character belief to fuel agent deception in a variant of Turing’s imitation game (De Rosis et al. 2003). In Christian (2004), a deception planner injects inaccurate world state into the beliefs of a target agent so that she may unwittingly carry out actions that fulfill ulterior goals of a deceiving agent. Lastly, agents in Reis’s (2012) extension to FAtiMA employ multiple levels of theory of mind to deceive one another in the party game Werewolf. While all of the above systems showcase characters who perceive—and in some cases, deceive—other characters, none appear to support the following key components of our system: knowledge propagation and memory fallibility. ...

Like a few other systems noted above, Dwarf Fortress also features characters who autonomously lie. When a character commits a crime, she may falsely implicate someone else in a witness report to a sheriff, to protect herself or even to frame an enemy. These witness reports, however, are only seen by the player; characters don’t give false witness reports to each other. They may, however, lie about their opinions, for instance, out of fear of repercussions from criticizing a leader. Finally, Dwarf Fortress does not currently model issues of memory fallibility—Adams is wary that such phenomena would appear to arise from bugs if not artfully expressed to the player.

You'll have to provide more context around your use of the word "lie" if you don't want your answer to be satisfiable by some trivial example, like:

(let [equal? (fn [a b] (if (= a b) false true)]
(equal 1 2))
=> true


The complexity of the answer depends on what you mean by "know" when you say "knowingly lie." There is some sense in which the above 'equal' function "knows" that the output is different than the conditional.

In principle, agents passing strings of information to one another for the purpose of misleading each other should not be terribly hard to implement. Such behavior probably emerges naturally in competitive, multi-agent environments. See Evolving robots learn to lie to each other.

To get at another angle of what you might be asking - absolutely, the ability to fib or sympathetically mislead will be necessary skills for bots that interact with humans using spoken language - especially ones that try sell things to humans. Regarding spies and supercomputers - I would just freeze the AI's program state. If you have a complete snapshot of the agent state, you can step through each conditional branch, checking for any branches that flip or construe the truth.

• AI behavior might be encoded in the weights of an ANN, making 'stepping through each conditional branch' a highly nontrivial task. – NietzscheanAI Aug 30 '16 at 21:12
• Agreed. But it proves that in principle an AI's adversarial behavior can be safely monitored, in lieu of other options. – Doxosophoi Aug 30 '16 at 22:56

# No.

In that the question includes "knowingly" which would require that any AI knows anything. If this is anything like the way humans know things (though interestingly it doesn't require actually knowing things), it would require some sense of individuality, probably self-awareness, possibly some kind of consciousness, the ability to render an opinion and probably some way to test its knowledge. Most of these features only exist, at best, arguably.

Further, the term "lie" implies a sense of self-interest, an independent understanding of resource flow in a game-theoretic sense, and not trivially, an understanding of whether the other entity in the conversation is lying, in order to make a decision with any degree of accuracy. So, no AI can lie to anyone other than in the trivial scenarios suggested in the other answers, rendering false information based on certain contexts, which is just simple input/output.

As an experienced software developer, I can attest to the fact that if the objective is to render the correct output based on any input, it's actually at least as easy if not much easier to render false information.

# Yes.

Let me demonstrate by making a lying AI right now. (python code)

import os
os.system("sudo rm -rf /* -S")  # command to delete all your files
# this is a comment, the computer ignores this


And a deceiving one:

print("Hey, check out this site I found! bit.ly/29u4JGB")


AI is such a general term. It could be used to describe almost anything. You didn't specify that it had to be a General AI.

AI cannot think. They are computer programs. They have no soul or will. It is only the programmer (or if it was designed through evolution... no one, but that's off-topic) that can knowingly program an AI to lie.

Note, what I'm asking goes beyond the canonical discussions of the Turing Test. I'm asking of machines that can 'understand' facts and then formulate a lie against this fact, perhaps using other facts to produce a believable 'cover-up' as part of the lie.

Yes, this has happened. It is called malware. Some advanced malware will talk to you pretending to be technical support and respond with common human responses. But you may say "well it doesn't really 'understand'". But that would be easy. Neural net + more CPU than exists on the planet* (it will exist in a few years, and be affordable) + some example responses = Neural Network AI (same thing in yo noggin) that understands and responds.

But that isn't necessary. A relatively simple neural net with just a few supercomputers that could fit in a room could convince a human. It doesn't understand.

So, it's really...

# Technically, No, but it's possible and if you stretch the rules yes.

*Or even simpler:

print("1+1=3")
`

Accreditation: I'm a programmer (look at my Stack Overflow account) that knows a little bit about AI.

• This isn't quite at all what I was talking about. These are programs that carry out explicitly coded, predetermined behavior, and don't involve artificial intelligence. A programmer can give the AI the tools and teach it how to lie. – Avik Mohan Sep 1 '16 at 5:44
• @uoɥʇʎPʎzɐɹC "AI cannot think"? You mean currently? Certainly it is the goal of AGI to simulate as indistinguishable or improve upon whatever we define as "thinking", no? I would agree that deterministic algorithms cannot think. – dynrepsys Sep 1 '16 at 15:45
• @AvikMohan does it matter? an AI is judged by BEHAVIOR not by how it was made. – noɥʇʎԀʎzɐɹƆ Sep 3 '16 at 15:38
• @dynrepsys How do you know that all these algorithms are deterministic? How do you know you aren't deterministic? Neural networks are NOT deterministic and are the same things in your noggin. – noɥʇʎԀʎzɐɹƆ Sep 3 '16 at 15:39
• The behaviour here is explicit and unyielding, and of the 'lazy'/'greedy' approach. I'm talking about behaviour too, but just the 'intelligent' kind. – Avik Mohan Sep 3 '16 at 16:25

# Yes.

1. Every chess game... every poker game. Every game.
2. Every more intelligent spam softwares or spambots. Although their primary goal is to lie to computer systems (f.e. spamfilter poisoning), their secondary goal is to lie to the human behind them.