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I was going through university slides and this particular slide is trying to prove that in a Monte Carlo Policy Iteration algorithm using an epsilon-greedy policy, the state Values (V-Values) are monotonically improving.

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My question is about the first line of computation.

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Isn't this actually the formula for the expected value of Q? It is calculating a probability of occurrence following the policy times actual Q values, then doing the summation.

If that is the case, could you help me understand the relationship between the expected value of Q and the expected value of V ?

Also, if above is true, in a real world scenario, depending on how many episodes we sample and on stochasticity, does it mean that the V values of the new policy could be worse than the V values of the old policy ?

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I think this equation answer your question: $$ q_{\pi^{i}}(s,\pi^{i+1}(s)) = \mathbf{E}[q_{\pi^{i}}(s,\pi^{i+1}(s))] = \sum_{a \in A}\pi^{i+1}(a|s)q_{\pi^{i}}(s,a)$$

value of the Q while taking action from policy $\pi^{i+1}$ and thereafter following the policy $\pi^{i}$ is equal to the expected q value while taking action from policy $\pi^{i+1}$ and thereafter following the policy $\pi^{i}$. And for the second part of your question the answer is:

$$ V_{\pi^{i}}(s) = q_{\pi^{i}}(s,\pi^{i}(s))$$

state Value function following the policy $\pi^{i}$ is the same as action-value function while taking action from policy $\pi^{i}$ and thereafter following the policy $\pi^{i}$.

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