# Understanding Batch Normalization for CNNs

I am trying to understand how batch normalization (BN) works in CNNs. Suppose I have a feature map tensor $$T$$ of shape $$(N, C, H, W)$$

where $$N$$ is the mini-batch size,

$$C$$ is the number of channels, and

$$H,W$$ is the spatial dimension of the tensor.

Method 1: $$T_{n,c,x,y} := \gamma*\frac {T_{c,x,y} - \mu_{x,y}} {\sqrt{\sigma^2_{x,y} + \epsilon}} + \beta$$ where $$\mu_{x,y} = \frac{1}{NC}\sum_{n, c} T_{n,c,x,y}$$ is the mean for all channels $$c$$ for each batch element $$n$$ at spatial location $$x,y$$ over the minibatch, and

$$\sigma^2_{x,y} = \frac{1}{NC} \sum_{n, c} (T_{n, c,x,y}-\mu_{c})^2$$ is the variance of the minibatch for all channels $$c$$ at spatial location $$x,y$$.

Method 2: $$T_{n,c,x,y} := \gamma*\frac {T_{c,x,y} - \mu_{c,x,y}} {\sqrt{\sigma^2_{c,x,y} + \epsilon}} + \beta$$ where $$\mu_{c,x,y} = \frac{1}{N}\sum_{n} T_{n,c,x,y}$$ is the mean for a specific channels $$c$$ for each batch element $$n$$ at spatial location $$x,y$$ over the minibatch, and

$$\sigma^2_{c,x,y} = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n} (T_{n, c,x,y}-\mu_{c})^2$$ is the variance of the minibatch for a channel $$c$$ at spatial location $$x,y$$.

Method 3: For each channel $$c$$ we compute the mean/variance over the entire spatial values for $$x,y$$ and apply the formula as

$$T_{n, c,x,y} := \gamma*\frac {T_{n, c,x,y} - \mu_{c}} {\sqrt{\sigma^2_{c} + \epsilon}} + \beta$$, where now $$\mu_c = \frac{1}{NHW} \sum_{n,x,y} T_{n,c,x,y}$$ and $$\sigma^2{_c} = \frac{1}{NHW} \sum_{n,x,y} (T_{n,c,x,y}-\mu_c)^2$$

In practice which of these methods is used (if any) are correct for?

The original paper on batch normalization , https://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.03167.pdf , states on page 5 section 3.2, last paragraph, left side of the page:

For convolutional layers, we additionally want the normalization to obey the convolutional property – so that different elements of the same feature map, at different locations, are normalized in the same way. To achieve this, we jointly normalize all the activations in a minibatch, over all locations. In Alg. 1, we let $$\mathcal{B}$$ be the set of all values in a feature map across both the elements of a mini-batch and spatial locations – so for a mini-batch of size $$m$$ and feature maps of size $$p \times q$$, we use the effective mini-batch of size $$m^\prime = \vert \mathcal{B} \vert = m \cdot pq$$. We learn a pair of parameters $$\gamma^{(k)}$$ and $$\beta^{(k)}$$ per feature map, rather than per activation. Alg. 2 is modified similarly, so that during inference the BN transform applies the same linear transformation to each activation in a given feature map.

I'm not sure what the authors mean by "per feature map", does this mean per channel?

• Are you proposing the three methods or are you pulling them out of a document? If you are pulling them from somewhere else please cite them. Also, you want the variance and not the standard deviation in the denominator. – Brian O'Donnell Jan 20 at 1:01
• @BrianO'Donnell edited. – IntegrateThis Jan 20 at 1:11