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If I am correct, the branching factor is the maximum number of successors of any node.
When I am applying bidirectional search to a transition graph like this one below

enter image description here

If 11 is the goal state and I start going backwards, is 10 considered as successor of 5? Even if it do not leads me further to my start state 1?

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If I am correct, the branching factor is the maximum number of successors of any node

You are correct, they should also be the immediate ones:

branching factor

If 11 is the goal state and I start going backwards, is 10 considered as successor of 5? Even if it do not leads me further to my start state 1?

No, there is also a bit of misunderstanding of bidirectional search: In bidirectional search you run 2 simultaneous searches, one forward from the initial state, and another one backwards from the goal(hoping they meet in the middle and save you steps), if actions are reversible ( going from node to node), the successor nodes become predecessors in one search and vice versa, and your goal becomes your initial state, in your case:

bidirectional search

Reference/source

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, by S. Russell and P. Norvig.

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