After looking into transformers, BERT, and GPT-2, from what I understand, GPT-2 essentially uses only the decoder part of the original transformer architecture and uses masked self-attention that can only look at prior tokens.

Why does GPT-2 not require the encoder part of the original transformer architecture?

GPT-2 architecture with only decoder layers

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GPT-2 is a close copy of the basic transformer architecture.

GPT-2 does not require the encoder part of the original transformer architecture as it is decoder-only, and there are no encoder attention blocks, so the decoder is equivalent to the encoder, except for the MASKING in the multi-head attention block, the decoder is only allowed to glean information from the prior words in the sentence. It works just like a traditional language model as it takes word vectors as input and produces estimates for the probability of the next word as outputs but it is auto-regressive as each token in the sentence has the context of the previous words. Thus GPT-2 works one token at a time.

BERT, by contrast, is not auto-regressive. It uses the entire surrounding context all-at-once. GPT-2 the context vector is zero-initialized for the first word embedding.


The cases when we use encoder-decoder architectures are typically when we are mapping one type of sequence to another type of sequence, e.g. translating French to English or in the case of a chatbot taking a dialogue context and producing a response. In these cases, there are qualitative differences between the inputs and outputs so that it makes sense to use different weights for them.

In the case of GPT-2, which is trained on continuous text such as Wikipedia articles, if we wanted to use an encoder-decoder architecture, we would have to make arbitrary cutoffs to determine which part will be dealt with by the encoder and which part by the decoder. In these cases therefore, it is more common to just use the decoder by itself.


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