What are some recent books that introduce AI and neural networks while also discussing the related philosophical issues, like epistemology and whether AI is really thinking, etc.?
Inventors have long dreamed of creating machines that think. This desire dates back to at least the time of ancient Greece. The mythical ﬁgures Pygmalion, Daedalus, and Hephaestus may all be interpreted as legendary inventors, and Galatea, Talos, and Pandora may all be regarded as artiﬁcial life
Ironically, abstract and formal tasks that are among the most difficult mental undertakings for a human being are among the easiest for a computer. Computers have long been able to defeat even the best human chess player but only recently have begun matching some of the abilities of average human beings to recognize objects or speech. A person’s everyday life requires an immense amount of knowledge about the world. Much of this knowledge is subjective and intuitive, and therefore difficult to articulate in a formal way. Computers need to capture this same knowledge in order to behave in an intelligent way. One of the key challenges in artificial intelligence is how to get this informal knowledge into a computer.
Deep learning has had a long and rich history, but has gone by many names, reflecting different philosophical viewpoints, and has waxed and waned in popularity.
The famous book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig) covers all or most of the theoretical aspects of artificial intelligence (such as deep learning) and it also dedicates one chapter to the common philosophical topics that you mention.
I would like to add "The Master Algorithm" by Pedro Domingos. I would say it's more philosophical but still provides high level discussions about differences between algorithms. He also has a sense of humor which makes it a lighter read.