There are still many different interpretations of the terms intelligence and consciousness. For the sake of this discussion I would define intelligence as the problem solving capabilities and consciousness as the state of being aware of and responsive to one's surroundings, including the experience of qualia.
If I understand your question correctly, you are focused on consciousness and not intelligence (based on the definitions above).
In the case of humans - the only species where we have first hand knowledge about what consciousness feels like - it feels like the consciousness resides inside the respective body. Most people experience it like "being" inside their head. Although debated, consciousness is most likely a simulation created by the human brain. Qualia is heavily - if not exclusively - influenced by the sensory input from the human senses. Therefore it only makes sense that it feels like the consciousness resides in the center of the sensors (eyes, ears, etc.).
Science hasn't figured out the nature of consciousness yet, so there is a lot of speculation involved. Applying above this logic to artificial consciousness and qualia, it would make sense that the machine will feel like being at the location if its sensors as well. If there is no dominant area of sensors, maybe a distributed system, it might be a split consciousness spread across several locations.
If the creation of consciousness happens accidentally - like it did during evolution - emergence at the sensors feels most likely. Should the creator of artificial consciousness do it on purpose, he should be able to shape the simulation in other ways as he sees fit.