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So I read somewhere there are 2 different views of Artificial Intelligence.

  • One is the normal conventional approach where we use ML and AI logical inference programs to mimic a human brain.
  • Another view is that we cannot create an intelligent agent just by the above procedure. We humans or animals are only intelligent due to our social interactions.

If we think about it, the second view has a lot of credibility since a brain in a jar is not at all intelligent and will not evolve things that make an animal possess intelligent traits like language, logical reasoning, etc. Whereas an ant or bee colonies are apparently intelligent due to their collective information gathering even if their brain are basically hard-wired logical sensors which just perform an action on a given stimulus.

So my questions are:

  1. Are all this artificially intelligent agents/programs being created or will be created in near future, just a set of rules and probabilities?
  2. What is the current progress and views on collective/swarm intelligence?
  3. And what is the level of intelligence or brain capabilities required by an agent which if works collectively (like bees/ants broadly super-organisms) can exceed normal human intelligence?

EDIT: If we look at it nodes in a neural net are also kind of ants/bees. They just perform a hardwired calculation and output the result. Can we think of an ANN as swarm intelligence?

A collective answer explaining the reasoning for the views is highly appreciated. Thanks in advance!!

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  • $\begingroup$ You're too broad.can you narrow down your research scope $\endgroup$ – quintumnia Feb 8 '18 at 19:37
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    $\begingroup$ @quintumnia think of the question as social intelligence vs the intelligence we are creating by computer simulations $\endgroup$ – DuttaA Feb 9 '18 at 9:45
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First, it is not possible to fully define or duplicate the actions of a conscious agent using only AI theory derived from Church-Turing. In other words, the human brain is not a type of Turing Machine. This can be proven.

Are all this artificially intelligent agents/programs being created or will be created in near future, just a set of rules and probabilities?

No. These are common methods in AI but they are not sufficient for cognitive behavior.

What is the current progress and views on collective/swarm intelligence?

We have not had a general theory of human reasoning since the Dartmouth conference in 1956. Because of this prolonged lack of theoretical explanation some have fallen back other explanations such as pan-psychism, spontaneous emergence, or things like swarm theory. Swarm systems can produce fairly elaborate behavior but they have the problem of lacking an independent, global pattern. This means that anything complex with a swarm must have a fractal-type pattern since the overall pattern can only be a result of an accumulation of local patterns. This does not describe human reasoning.

And what is the level of intelligence or brain capabilities required by an agent which if works collectively (like bees/ants broadly super-organisms) can exceed normal human intelligence?

As I've already stated, this is not possible with a swarm system.

If we look at it nodes in a neural net are also kind of ants/bees. They just perform a hardwired calculation and output the result. Can we think of an ANN as swarm intelligence?

Not exactly. A swarm system has local independence. In other words, every piece of a swarm is the same as every other piece. This is true even when individual units are specialized such as having queen, drone, worker, and warrior specialties in an ant colony. In contrast a neural network can have cross-linkages that provide global pattern recognition. But, this too has a problem when applied generally. For example, a Boltzmann machine has extensive cross-linkages but this causes it to stop learning when it is scaled up. So, we have the Restricted Boltzmann machine with no cross-links within the same hidden layer. In other words, neural networks are capable of behavior beyond that of a swarm system but still well below what a brain can do.

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  • $\begingroup$ I think you should edit the 3rd question, we know the intelligence of 5 persons will be greater than a single person...so at-least at some level of intelligence collective intelligence will surpass a single humans intelligence..although I am not sure how to define intelligence in this case $\endgroup$ – DuttaA Apr 3 '18 at 16:08
  • $\begingroup$ @DuttaA I have to wonder about that, because it seems to me there is a corollary question of "which 5 humans vs. the single human, and what subject?". 5 average people would surely not be as intelligent as our dear departed Dr. Hawking, particularly if the problem involved math or physics. :) $\endgroup$ – DukeZhou Apr 3 '18 at 20:03
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the valuable disambiguation about swarm intelligence. I have to wonder if some of the misapprehension involves popular depictions. As a mythographer, I've noticed that in fictional depictions of swarm super-intelligence usually involve an advanced, sentient "super mind", with human or greater intelligence, controlling the swarm. The "Hive Mind", if you will. $\endgroup$ – DukeZhou Apr 3 '18 at 20:10
  • $\begingroup$ @DukeZhou average minds..We don't take exceptions in context..Also bees work quite smart but I am not sure whether it translates to intelligence $\endgroup$ – DuttaA Apr 3 '18 at 20:13
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    $\begingroup$ @DuttaA That's a fair point because, in the typical bot swarm, aren't the agents all identical. (How this changes if each bot is self-evolving, I can only guess...) Regarding intelligence, that can be defined many ways, and is always a spectrum. One of the definitions of intelligence is simply information. You might have an algorithmic intelligence in the form of a string. When processing, it can demonstrate that intelligence. But the simple encoded state of the information as a string represents a form of intelligence, regardless of whether it is processing. $\endgroup$ – DukeZhou Apr 3 '18 at 21:04
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Swarm intelligence was first demonstrated by Craig Reynolds 1987 in the Boids / Flocking domain. There is a huge amount of agents which are interacting together. From a game-theoretic standpoint, swarm intelligence depends on the problem which has to be solved. For example, if the aim is to pick&place an object with 100 ants at the same time, than the question is, what the position of every ants has to be. So it is less a question of biology and neurons but more an optimization problem.

In general it is difficult to solve swarm like problems, because the first step is to generate a blackboard, in which the swarm stores his information. For example, ant #1 can only see a small part of the world, and ant #2 can see a another part. So both visual information must be matched together for creating the overall map.

Answering the second question “What is the current progress in swarm intelligence?” is simple. The Pixar animation studio is releasing every year a new movie. That is a good example, what the current technology looks like. Swarm Characters: The Principle of Distinctness in the Character Analysis

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