I am trying to understand the difference between the workings biological evolution and artificial evolution. If we look at it in terms of genetics, in both of them, selection is the key term, natural selection in biological way and selection as in genetic algorithms than what's the difference in between artificial and biological evolution?
Biological and artificial evolution work around pretty much the same principles.
Fitness and selection: In biology, the fittest organisms in an ecosystem are more likely to survive long enough to reproduce, passing on their genes in the process. In artificial evolution, our organisms are in fact solutions to our problem, which can be evaluated to determine how good they are (their fitness). We choose ourselves which solutions will be selected for reproduction (there are many ways to do this selection, but what is common among all of them is that the fittest solutions have a higher chance of being selected).
Crossover: In biology, an organism inherits a portion of each parent's genes, so is a sort of genetic hybrid of both parents. For artificial evolution, a new solution (a "child" solution) will inherit part of its parent's solutions (we take a partial solution from each parent, and glue those partial solutions together to construct a new solution).
Mutation: In nature mutations often occur at birth and this is why there are many different species. Harmful mutations make the individual less likely to survive long enough to pass them on to children, and in contrast helpful mutations make it more likely that the individual will survive long enough to pass them unto children. The same can be said for artificial evolution: A mutation randomly changes a small part of the solution, and if it makes that solution fitter, then that solution has a higher chance of being selected for reproduction.
Selecting the fittest species is only what the audience sees from the evolution, in reality it works different. Suppose our aim is to implement a realtime strategy game with a civilization who is exploring a tech-tree. For the player it looks like the species improves himself and overcomes technology from the past. But in reality, the techtree was available since the beginning and it was only hidden from the player. That means, the game unhides in later iterations new features to create the illusion of evolution. It is not possible to create out of nothing something. Mutation or selection are only marketing description for Memetics (something which was already there). They are not explaining how the system works under the hood. Even games who are dedicated to natural selection like “Spore” (2008 videogame from Maxis) are nothing else than a 1 GB iso file, in which all the characters and maps are implemented and if the user reaches a certain goal, the species in the game were unlocked and made visible.
If this concept is also true for biological evolution (© by Charles Darwin) is unclear. In fact, for computergames evolution never works. Only the marketing description in Spore is based on survival of the fittest, the inner working of the game is devoted to something else.