In Section 1.1 of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, it is stated that a computer which passes the Turing Test would need 4 capabilities, and that these 4 capabilities comprise most of the field of Artificial Intelligence:
- natural language processing: to enable it to communicate successfully in English
- knowledge representation: to store what it knows and hears
- automated reasoning: to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions
- machine learning: to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns
Did Alan Turing discern the requirements for the field of artificial intelligence (the necessary subfields) and purposefully design a test around these requirements, or did he simply design a test that is so general that the subfields which developed within artificial intelligence happen to be what is required to solve it? That is, was he prescient or lucky? Are these Turing's subdivisions, or Peter Norvig's and Stuart Russell's?
If Turing did foresee these 4 requirements, what did he base them on? What principles of intelligence allowed him to predict the requirements for the field?