Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
John McCarthy (1927 - 2011) was an American computer scientist. A pioneer in the foundations of artificial intelligence research, he coined the term "artificial intelligence". He was one of the creators of the (original) Lisp programming language, which was quite involved in early AI research in the 1960s and 1970s.
He coined the term in 1955, and organized the first Artificial Intelligence conference in 1956, while working as a math teacher at Dartmouth. He founded the AI labs at MIT and Stanford.
He's responsible for developing several other important concepts in today's mainstream computer science. Namely, he developed garbage collection (used by a Lisp interpreter) and designed the first time-sharing systems.
On a side note, McCarthy predicted that creating a truly intelligent machine would require 1.8 Einsteins and one-tenth the resources of the Manhattan Project