Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
John McCarthy (1927 - 2011) was an American computer scientist. A pioneer in the foundations of artificial intelligence research, he coined the term "artificial intelligence". He was one of the creators of the (original) Lisp programming language, which was quite involved in early AI research in the 1960s and 1970s.
He coined the term in 1955, and organized the first Artificial Intelligence conference in 1956, while working as a math teacher at Dartmouth. He founded the AI labs at MIT and Stanford.
He's responsible for developing several other important concepts in today's mainstream computer science. Namely, he developed garbage collection (used by a Lisp interpreter) and designed the first time-sharing systems.
On a side note, McCarthy predicted that creating a truly intelligent machine would require 1.8 Einsteins and one-tenth the resources of the Manhattan Project
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods."The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.
The field of AI research was founded at a workshop held on the campus of Dartmouth College during the summer of 1956.
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