Have machine learning techniques been used to play outdoor games, like cricket or badminton?
Yes it is possible.
A group of Chinese college students and teachers made a robot that plays badminton. I am sure someone will make a robot that can play cricket and other outside games.
Although not an outdoor game, Omron made a robot named Forpheus that plays ping pong. There is also a robot that plays the sport of curling.
There is an annual event called the RoboCup where robot teams compete in indoor soccer on a scaled down level. They don't look like they will be beating humans in the next couple of years but it is interesting to watch. Their web site is: http://www.robocup.org/
There are a few challenges that remain to be resolved for robots to play humans in sports. The biggest one is self-contained power that will last long enough to play a game. It takes a lot of power to move a human scaled robot and run its electronics, sensors, and computers. Other challenges are dexterity and agility. There have been some advances in these areas as this video shows.