Are there any graphs (of some sort) that would clearly present the status of AI in one way or another (meaning in a verifiably measurable way) and show where AI has been progressing and what the expected outcomes/predictions are currently available?
It makes no sense to measure the capabilities of an AI system alone, because any software has to be programmed by somebody. Most psychometric AI tests are evaluating the AI plus the humans who have to build them. Robocup soccer, for example, is a challenge about the best robot-team who plays football, but also about the best university how has educated engineers.
The idea of measuring publicly AI systems is very young. The first robotics competitions were established in the late 1980s together with the New AI development of Rodney Brooks. In most cases, the challenges are reflecting the current socioeconomic situation. They were established by the current government and cooperate sponsors and were attended by students in computer science. Often, psychometric AI test is strongly connected to the individual career of a person, that is equal to a normal IQ-tests which is focused on individual capabilities.
With the help of Google, I've found a concrete chart which reflects the progress over time: it is the annual founding in AI over the timescale and the amount increased over the years. Today, the energy invested in the AI-domain is 10x higher than 10 years before.