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What are the top contributions from neuroscience to artificial intelligence and vice versa?

How much progress has been made from the interaction between these two fields?

Is there a formal field dedicated to the research of topics in the intersection between AI and neuroscience, with papers being published and maybe conferences being held periodically?

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Understanding a human brain fully, how hippocampus and neocortex works would surely help AI enthusiasts to make better AI algorithms with superior memory, ability to learn and finding what precisely intelligence, feelings and conciousness are by itself. The AI looks at psysiological and anatomical data as a source of suggestions regarding possible mechanisms and processes that could be used. Still AI doesn't deal that much from neuroscience.

From brain to AI : edge-detection using zero-crossing at multiple scales is a decent example where physiological data are used to suggest a solution to a fundamental problem in computer vision. In computational vision, a problem is the initial organization and representation of the input image. The goal is to transform the measurements of light-intensity level made by photoreceptors eyes' have, into a representation that is more concise. One of the most successful approaches to the problem had its origin in physiological studies of the processing that takes place at the level of the retinal ganglion cells which can be thought of as filtering the image with center-surround receptive fields whose cross-section can be approximated analytically by the second derivative of a gaussian. There had been proven research that a powerful edge detection scheme could be based upon the operation of such cells.

From AI to brain : Integration of motion perception measurement is a worth-mentioning example. It originates in studies of problem of measuring the motion of edges and contours in the image. Such motion can not be determined on the basis of purely local measurements. The underlying reason is 'aperture problem'. Selective visual attention and long-range motion analytics are another two fields where use of computational cosiderations are illustrated in the design and interpretation of physiological studies.

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What are the top contributions from neuroscience to artificial intelligence and vice versa?

Here is a glimpse of one of my favorite companies doing it big in artificial intelligence field,inline with its contribution to neuroscience;otherwise.

DeepMind

It's goal is to build a general AI systems with the ability to think,reasoning and learn flexibility and rapidly,Systems which can intuit about the real world and imagine better ones.

How much progress has been made from the interaction between these two fields?

According to Demis Hassabis ,the founder of DeepMind,in his paper published in journal Neuron.

"..the recent findings in neuroscience show that the hippocampus a sea horse structure in acts as a hub for encoding memory,replays those experiences in fast forward during rest and sleep...."

Is there a formal field dedicated to the research of topics in the intersection between AI and neuroscience, with papers being published and maybe conferences being held periodically?

Currently,Deep Mind is doing unrest research despite their paper being published " neuroscience and artificial intelligence"

also Michael has mentioned it in the comment.

note ;New scientists work to solve the neural code,the basic computations which supports brain function.

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In Computer Vision, Convolutional Neural Networks are basically an implementation of how neurons in the brain work. Even when making your models architecture it’s common to put in dropout layers which mimic the way your brain uses different pathways of learning.

There are architectures and techniques like You Only Look Once(YOLO) and one-shot learning, all this trying to replicate how the brain can instantly recognize something it has had little samples of or seen only once.

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