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One of the solutions to scale blockchain is to use off-chain channels. You can find its definition here: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Off-Chain_Transactions.

However, one of the problems of off-chain channels is finding a suitable decentralized routing mechanism.

Since in Bitcoin there is no routing table and transactions are only broadcast and also, in general, we need to avoid centralized approaches for routing, is it practical to use swarm intelligence algorithms, such as ant colony optimization ones, for off-chain channels?

I refer you to a proposed ant routing algorithm in the paper Ant routing algorithm for the Lightning Network for an instance of employing ACO algorithms for routing in _lightning network. However, the paper has not been evaluated to demonstrate its performance.

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