Greatest Hits

91 votes
6 answers
100k views

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning?

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning? It seems to me that any model-free learner, learning through trial and error, could be reframed as model-based. In ...
mynameisvinn's user avatar
  • 1,011
182 votes
12 answers
60k views

Could a paradox kill an AI?

In Portal 2 we see that AI's can be "killed" by thinking about a paradox. I assume this works by forcing the AI into an infinite loop which would essentially "freeze" the computer's consciousness. ...
Josh B.'s user avatar
  • 1,949
54 votes
2 answers
48k views

How does ChatGPT retain the context of previous questions?

One of the innovations with OpenAI's ChatGPT is how natural it is for users to interact with it. What is the technical enabler for ChatGPT to maintain the context of previous questions in its answers? ...
milez's user avatar
  • 981
72 votes
4 answers
104k views

Why does the transformer do better than RNN and LSTM in long-range context dependencies?

I am reading the article How Transformers Work where the author writes Another problem with RNNs, and LSTMs, is that it’s hard to parallelize the work for processing sentences, since you have to ...
DRV's user avatar
  • 1,693
36 votes
1 answer
42k views

Meaning of roles in the API of GPT-4/ChatGPT (system/user/assistant)

In the API of GPT-4 and ChatGPT, the prompt for a chat conversation is a list of messages, each marked as one of three roles: system, ...
Volker Siegel's user avatar
26 votes
1 answer
34k views

How does the (decoder-only) transformer architecture work?

How does the (decoder-only) transformer architecture work which is used in impressive models such as GPT-4?
Robin van Hoorn's user avatar
97 votes
3 answers
86k views

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning?

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning? How is it different from supervised learning?
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.9k
7 votes
4 answers
70k views

Is "AIAngel" (Patreon) a fake?

These guys here: https://www.patreon.com/AiAngel are saying that they've created a AI who can chat and stream. As the so-called administrator "Rogue" said: this chat/streamer bot are no fake. Also, ...
M.N.Raia's user avatar
  • 181
43 votes
5 answers
81k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
Mithical's user avatar
  • 2,915
29 votes
4 answers
79k views

Why does C++ seem less widely used than Python in AI?

I just want to know why do machine learning engineers and AI programmers use languages like Python to perform AI tasks and not C++, even though C++ is technically a more powerful language than Python.
Mark ellon's user avatar
41 votes
2 answers
31k views

How is ChatGPT aware of today's date?

I asked ChatGPT (3.5 and 4) about current date and (s)he answered correctly. In subsequent conversation (s)he was not able to explain how (s)he has this knowledge. I always thought that the model only ...
Peter Franek's user avatar
102 votes
4 answers
88k views

How can neural networks deal with varying input sizes?

As far as I can tell, neural networks have a fixed number of neurons in the input layer. If neural networks are used in a context like NLP, sentences or blocks of text of varying sizes are fed to a ...
Asciiom's user avatar
  • 1,171
66 votes
12 answers
61k views

In a CNN, does each new filter have different weights for each input channel, or are the same weights of each filter used across input channels?

My understanding is that the convolutional layer of a convolutional neural network has four dimensions: ...
Ryan Chase's user avatar
14 votes
3 answers
66k views

What are the differences between A* and greedy best-first search?

What are the differences between the A* algorithm and the greedy best-first search algorithm? Which one should I use? Which algorithm is the better one, and why?
Marosh Fatima's user avatar
19 votes
1 answer
49k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
xava's user avatar
  • 423
29 votes
4 answers
36k views

Why is ChatGPT bad at math?

As opposed to How does ChatGPT know math?, I've been seeing some things floating around the Twitterverse about how ChatGPT can actually be very bad at math. For instance, I asked it "If it takes ...
Mithical's user avatar
  • 2,915
8 votes
1 answer
38k views

What are some examples of intelligent agents for each intelligent agent class?

There are several classes of intelligent agents, such as: simple reflex agents model-based reflex agents goal-based agents utility-based agents learning agents Each of these agents behaves slightly ...
practronix512's user avatar
68 votes
4 answers
122k views

How to select number of hidden layers and number of memory cells in an LSTM?

I am trying to find some existing research on how to select the number of hidden layers and the size of these of an LSTM-based RNN. Is there an article where this problem is being investigated, i.e., ...
Stephen Johnson's user avatar
27 votes
4 answers
15k views

Why do ChatGPT “jailbreaks” work?

Do developers not genuinely want to prevent them? It seems like if they are able to develop such impressive AI models then it wouldn’t be that difficult to create catch-all/wildcard mitigations to the ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
30 votes
2 answers
37k views

What are "bottlenecks" in neural networks?

What are "bottlenecks" in the context of neural networks? This term is mentioned, for example, in this TensorFlow article, which also uses the term "bottleneck values". How does ...
Anurag Singh's user avatar
36 votes
1 answer
42k views

What is the "temperature" in the GPT models?

What does the temperature parameter mean when talking about the GPT models? I know that a higher temperature value means more randomness, but I want to know how randomness is introduced. Does ...
Tom Dörr's user avatar
  • 483
50 votes
3 answers
23k views

Was ChatGPT trained on Stack Overflow data?

Has ChatGPT used highly rated and upvoted questions/answers from Stack Overflow in its training data? For me it makes complete sense to take answers that have upwards of 100 upvotes and include them ...
Nicolas Zein's user avatar
25 votes
3 answers
89k views

How do I choose the optimal batch size?

Batch size is a term used in machine learning and refers to the number of training examples utilised in one iteration. The batch size can be one of three options: batch mode: where the batch size is ...
Sebastian Nielsen's user avatar
68 votes
10 answers
47k views

Why is Python such a popular language in the AI field?

First of all, I'm a beginner studying AI and this is not an opinion-oriented question or one to compare programming languages. I'm not implying that Python is the best language. But the fact is that ...
Douglas Ferreira's user avatar
21 votes
6 answers
23k views

How much energy consumption is involved in Chat GPT responses being generated?

I note this question was deemed off-topic, so I'm trying to clearly frame this question in terms of scope of response I'm interested in, namely ethics and sustainability issues associated with the ...
wide_eyed_pupil's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
46k views

How can these 7 AI problem characteristics help me decide on an approach to a problem?

If this list1 can be used to classify problems in AI ... Decomposable to smaller or easier problems Solution steps can be ignored or undone Predictable problem universe Good solutions are ...
user4856's user avatar
  • 111
42 votes
4 answers
59k views

What is the time complexity for training a neural network using back-propagation?

Suppose that a NN contains $n$ hidden layers, $m$ training examples, $x$ features, and $n_i$ nodes in each layer. What is the time complexity to train this NN using back-propagation? I have a basic ...
user avatar
20 votes
1 answer
35k views

What is a fully convolution network?

I was surveying some literature related to Fully Convolutional Networks and came across the following phrase, A fully convolutional network is achieved by replacing the parameter-rich fully ...
r4bb1t's user avatar
  • 335
13 votes
13 answers
20k views

Is AI living or non-living?

I'm a bit confused about the definition of life. Can AI systems be called 'living'? Because they can do most of the things that we can. They can even communicate with one another. They are not ...
Soham's user avatar
  • 399
29 votes
1 answer
24k views

What is the credit assignment problem?

In reinforcement learning (RL), the credit assignment problem (CAP) seems to be an important problem. What is the CAP? Why is it relevant to RL?
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.9k
16 votes
8 answers
28k views

How to classify data which is spiral in shape?

I have been messing around in tensorflow playground. One of the input data sets is a spiral. No matter what input parameters I choose, no matter how wide and deep the neural network I make, I cannot ...
Souradeep Nanda's user avatar
39 votes
7 answers
16k views

Is the "Chinese room" an explanation of how ChatGPT works?

Sorry if this question makes no sense. I'm a software developer but know very little about AI. Quite a while ago, I read about the Chinese room, and the person inside who has had a lot of training/...
Guntram Blohm's user avatar
32 votes
3 answers
42k views

Can BERT be used for sentence generating tasks?

I am a new learner in NLP. I am interested in the sentence generating task. As far as I am concerned, one state-of-the-art method is the CharRNN, which uses RNN to generate a sequence of words. ...
ch271828n's user avatar
  • 423
5 votes
1 answer
9k views

What is the difference between simple reflex and model-based agents?

What is the difference between simple reflex and model-based agents? What is the role of the internal state in the case of model-based agents?
Pierre P.'s user avatar
  • 161
10 votes
2 answers
26k views

What are the limitations of the hill climbing algorithm and how to overcome them?

What are the limitations of the hill climbing algorithm? How can we overcome these limitations?
Abbas Ali's user avatar
  • 566
29 votes
4 answers
41k views

Can a neural network be used to predict the next pseudo random number?

Is it possible to feed a neural network the output from a random number generator and expect it learn the hashing (or generator) function, so that it can predict what will be the next generated pseudo-...
AshTyson's user avatar
  • 401
9 votes
1 answer
14k views

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

In section 2.4 (p. 46) of the book Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach (3rd edition), Russell and Norvig write The job of AI is to design an agent program that implements the agent function — ...
Abhishek Bhatia's user avatar
34 votes
6 answers
11k views

How does an AI like ChatGPT answer a question in a subject which it may not know?

After seeing StackOverflow's banning of ChatGPT, I explored it out of curiosity. It's marvellous as it can write code by itself! Later to check if it knows chess as well like Google-Deepmind's ...
iammilind's user avatar
  • 443
24 votes
5 answers
12k views

Why does ChatGPT fail in playing "20 questions"?

IBM Watson's success in playing "Jeopardy!" was a landmark in the history of artificial intelligence. In the seemingly simpler game of "Twenty questions" where player B has to ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
38 votes
2 answers
22k views

How can Transformers handle arbitrary length input?

The transformer, introduced in the paper Attention Is All You Need, is a popular new neural network architecture that is commonly viewed as an alternative to recurrent neural networks, like LSTMs and ...
chessprogrammer's user avatar
41 votes
5 answers
26k views

What is the purpose of an activation function in neural networks?

It is said that activation functions in neural networks help introduce non-linearity. What does this mean? What does non-linearity mean in this context? How does the introduction of this non-...
Mohsin's user avatar
  • 982
25 votes
3 answers
48k views

How do I handle large images when training a CNN?

Suppose that I have 10K images of sizes $2400 \times 2400$ to train a CNN. How do I handle such large image sizes without downsampling? Here are a few more specific questions. Are there any ...
WaterRocket8236's user avatar
22 votes
2 answers
23k views

What is the difference between First-Visit Monte-Carlo and Every-Visit Monte-Carlo Policy Evaluation?

I came across these 2 algorithms, but I cannot understand the difference between these 2, both in terms of implementation as well as intuitionally. So, what difference does the second point in both ...
user avatar
33 votes
5 answers
42k views

How can I deal with images of variable dimensions when doing image segmentation?

I'm facing the problem of having images of different dimensions as inputs in a segmentation task. Note that the images do not even have the same aspect ratio. One common approach that I found in ...
MattSt's user avatar
  • 597
24 votes
5 answers
22k views

What is non-Euclidean data?

What is non-Euclidean data? Here are some sub-questions Where does this type of data arise? I have come across this term in the context of geometric deep learning and graph neural networks. ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.9k
45 votes
2 answers
25k views

What is the relation between Q-learning and policy gradients methods?

As far as I understand, Q-learning and policy gradients (PG) are the two major approaches used to solve RL problems. While Q-learning aims to predict the reward of a certain action taken in a certain ...
Tejas Ramdas's user avatar
48 votes
19 answers
16k views

Can digital computers understand infinity?

As a human being, we can think infinity. In principle, if we have enough resources (time etc.), we can count infinitely many things (including abstract, like numbers, or real). For example, at least, ...
verdery's user avatar
  • 688
15 votes
1 answer
24k views

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
tahasozgen's user avatar
50 votes
3 answers
24k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
WilliamKF's user avatar
  • 2,513
27 votes
1 answer
22k views

What exactly are the "parameters" in GPT-3's 175 billion parameters and how are they chosen/generated?

When I studied neural networks, parameters were learning rate, batch size etc. But even GPT3's ArXiv paper does not mention anything about what exactly the parameters are, but gives a small hint that ...
Nav's user avatar
  • 491