Questions tagged [autoencoders]

For questions about autoencoders, a type of unsupervised artificial network for learning efficient data codings.

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Which models can I use for supervised learning with images?

I have to do a project that detects fabric surface errors and I will use machine learning methods to deal with it. I have a dataset that includes around six thousand fabric surface images with the ...
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How can I improve the performance on unseen data for semantic segmentation using an auto-encoder?

I am using simple autoencoders for the task of semantic segmentation on the VOC2012 dataset. I am currently using a simple autoencoder based model. It is trained on adam optimizer with cross-entropy ...
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Why do we add additional axis in CNN autoencoder while denoising?

I am currently learning about autoencoders and I follow https://www.tensorflow.org/tutorials/generative/autoencoder When denoising images, authors of tutorial add an additional axis to the data and I ...
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how to handle highly imbalanced multilabel classification?

I am working on a multilabel classification in which I am having 206 labels. When I saw the percentage of the number of 1's in each label they are way less than 0.1% for each label. The maximum ...
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47 views

Is it possible to have a variable-length latent vector in an autoencoder?

I'm trying to have a simple autoencoder but with variable latent length (the network can produce variable latent lengths with respect to the complexity of the input), but I've not seen any related ...
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25 views

How did they use their dataset with VAEs?

Old Photo Restoration via Deep Latent Space Translation (https://paperswithcode.com/paper/old-photo-restoration-via-deep-latent-space) In the article, it says : "We propose to restore old photos ...
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66 views

Why does the training time of SVMs dramatically decrease after applying dimensionality reduction to the features?

Training an SVM with an RBF kernel model with c = 5.5 and gamma = 1.06, for a 5-class classification problem on the NSL-KDD ...
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Role of autoencoder in Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine

I want to build HELM neural network that consists of autoencoder (AE) and one class classification (OC). HELM with AE and OC have following shape: That is, hidden layer output of AE is input of OC. ...
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Deep Continuous Clustering algorithm - just one output cluster

I use the DCC algorithm to cluster some data. The whole algorithm is available here, but shortly it is: construct mkNN graph of the data points (the connected components of it are the clusters). ...
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1answer
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Are Autoencoders for noise-reduction only suited to deal with salt-and-pepper kind of noise?

I'm currently looking at NN to deal with noisy data. I like the Autoencoder approach https://medium.com/@aliaksei.mikhailiuk/unsupervised-learning-for-data-interpolation-e259cf5dc957 because it seems ...
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How to quantify the amount of information lost by the decoder NN in an AE?

Is there a way to quantify the amount of information lost in the lossy part of an autoencoder where the original input is compressed to a representation with less degrees of freedom? I was thinking ...
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29 views

What is the time complexity for training a single-hidden layer auto-encoder?

What is the time complexity for training a single-hidden layer auto-encoder, for 1 epoch? You can assume that there are $n$ training examples, $m$ features, and $k$ neurons in the hidden layer, and ...
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Enforcing sparsity constraints that make use of spatial contiguity

I have a deep learning network that outputs grayscale image reconstructions. In addition to good reconstruction performance (measured through mean squared error or some other measure like psnr), I ...
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Are there transformer-based architectures that can produce fixed-length vector encodings given arbitrary-length text documents?

BERT encodes a piece of text such that each token (usually words) in the input text map to a vector in the encoding of the text. However, this makes the length of the encoding vary as a function of ...
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22 views

Which type of feature extractor do you suggest to classify sensor data?

I have IMU (Inertial Measurment Unit- 6 axis) sensor data. The sensor attached on a car and 7 different drivers wipe on same path. I want to extract features and classify drivers. Which type of ...
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Why don't we use auto-encoders instead of GANs?

I have watched Stanford's lectures about artificial intelligence, I currently have one question: why don't we use autoencoders instead of GANs? Basically, what GAN does is it receives a random vector ...
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44 views

What is the best activation function for the embedding layer in a deep auto-encoder?

I am designing a deep autoencoder for graph embedding (exactly node embedding) following this paper SDNE. In the original paper, they used the sigmoid activation for all hidden layers in the ...
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53 views

How to determine the number of hidden layers and units of a deep auto-encoder?

I am using a deep autoencoder for my problem. However, the way I choose the number of hidden layers and hidden units in a hidden layer is still based on my feeling. The size of the model that ...
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Looking for the proper algorithm to compress many lowres images of nearby locations

I have an optimization problem that I'm looking for the right algorithm to solve. What I have: A large set of low-res 360 images that were taken on a regular grid within a certain area. each of these ...
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How can a de-noising auto-encoder act as an anomaly detection model?

In some research papers, I have seen that, for training the autoencoders, instead of giving the non-anomalous input images, they add some anomalies to the normal input images, and train the auto-...
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1answer
65 views

What should the output of a neural network that needs to classify in an unsupervised fashion XOR data be?

XOR data, without labels: [[0,0],[0,1],[1,0],[1,1]] I'm using this network for auto-classifying XOR data: ...
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28 views

How much data do we need for making a successful de-noising auto-encoder?

Is there a guide how much data do you need for making successful denoising model using autoencoders? Or the rule is, the more data, the better it is? I tried with small dataset 350 samples, to see ...
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How can I have the same input and output shape in an auto-encoder?

I'm building a denoising autoencoder. I want to have the same input and output shape image. This is my architecture: ...
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1answer
41 views

What are the main differences between sparse autoencoders and convolution autoencoders?

What are the main differences and similarities between sparse autoencoders and convolution autoencoders? When should one be preferred over the other? What are their applications? (References are ...
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42 views

Does the reduction of the dimensions over multiple layers allow more details to be stored within the final representation?

From : https://debuggercafe.com/implementing-deep-autoencoder-in-pytorch/ the following autoencoder is defined ...
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How estimate the minimum size of an autoencoder to overfit the training data?

Given e.g. $1$M vectors of $1000$ floating points each, where every point in vectors is sampled from a uniform distribution between $-1$ to $1$, how to estimate the minimum network size required ...
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44 views

Is it possible to have the latent vector of an auto-encoder with size 1?

Given e.g. 1M vectors of $1000$ floating points each, where every point in vectors is sampled from a uniform distribution between $-1$ to $1$: Is it possible to have the bottleneck of the AE network ...
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1answer
59 views

How to evaluate the performance of an autoencoder trained on image data?

I am training an autoencoder on (general) image data. I use binary crossentropy loss function, but it is not very informative when I want to evaluate the performance of my autoencoder. An obvious ...
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33 views

How to convert something to vectors

I wanted to create an encoder, which is the first part of an autoencoder. I do not want to build the whole autoencoder but rather wanted to test whether my mobile device can support running an encoder ...
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71 views

How fast are autoencoders?

I was exploring image/video compression using Machine Learning. In there I discovered that autoencoders are used very frequently for this sort of thing. So I wanted to enquire:- How fast are ...
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1answer
36 views

Can I use an autoencoder with high latent representational space?

I am trying to use a neural network to predict the next state output given the current state and action pairs. Both input and outputs are continuous variables. Due to the high dimensionality of each ...
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1answer
63 views

Can a variational auto-encoder learn images composed of random noise at each pixel (each drawn from the same distribution)?

Can a variational auto-encoder (VAE) learn images whose pixels have been generated from a Gaussian distribution (e.g. $N(0, 1)$), i.e. each pixel is a sample from $N(0, 1)$? My gut feeling says no, ...
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227 views

Adding a dense layer after a conv2d layer in a convolutional autoencoder

I am trying to implement a convolutional autoencoder with a dense layer at the bottleneck do to some dimensional reduction. I have seen two approaches for this which arent particularly scalable. The ...
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25 views

Can denoising auto-encoders be convolutional and fully connected?

I have been reading lately on autoencoders a lot. I just wanted to summarize my understanding of denoising autoencoders. As far as I understand they can be Fully connected (in which case, they will ...
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1answer
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How can I use autoencoders to analyze patterns and classify them?

I generated a bunch of simulation data from a complex physical simulation that spits out patterns. I am trying to apply unsupervised learning to analyze the patterns and ideally classify them into ...
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1answer
32 views

How to get top 5 movies recommendations from Auto-Encoder

I have trained a model using Auto-encoder on movielens dataset. Below is how i trained the model. ...
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1answer
55 views

Why is exp used in encoder of VAE instead of using the value of standard deviation alone?

There's one VAE example here: https://towardsdatascience.com/teaching-a-variational-autoencoder-vae-to-draw-mnist-characters-978675c95776. And the source code of encoder can be found at the ...
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1answer
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What is the mean in the variational auto-encoder?

Here's a diagram of a variational auto-encoder. There are 2 nodes before the sample (encoding vector). One is the mean, one is the standard deviation. The mean one is confusing. Is it the mean of ...
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1answer
50 views

Autoencoder network for feature selection not converging

I am training an undercomplete autoencoder network for feature selection. I am using one hidden layer in the encoder and decoder networks each. The ELU activation function is used for each layer. For ...
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1answer
41 views

What class of problem is this?

If I have a lot of input output pairs as training data <float Xi, float Yi> and I have a parametrized approximation function (I know the function algorithm, ...
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77 views

Autoencoder produces repeated artifacts after convergence

As experiment, I have tried using an autoencoder to encode height data from the alps, however the decoded image is very pixellated after training for several hours as show in the image below. This ...
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43 views

How are small scale features represented in an Inverse Graphics Network (autoencoder)?

This post refers to Fig. 1 of a paper by Microsoft on their Deep Convolutional Inverse Graphics Network: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/kwkt_nips2015.pdf Having ...
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Is it possible to use entity embedding with autoencoder for anomaly detetction?

I'm trying to build autoencoder in keras in order to detect anomalies. However, most of the data is categorical and I have to encode it. When it comes to production, categorical features can take new ...
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Why is my variational auto-encoder generating random noise?

This is my first variational autoencoder. Background info: I am using the MNIST digits dataset. The model is created and trained in PyTorch. The model is able to get a reasonably low loss, but the ...
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What are some new deep learning models for learning latent representation of data?

I know that autoencoders are one type of deep neural networks that can learn the latent representation of data. I guess there should be several other models like autoencoders. What are some new deep ...
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1answer
99 views

Why does the denoising autoencoder always returns the same output?

I am trying to implement a denoising autoencoder (DAE) to remove noise from 1024-point FFT spectra. I am using two types of spectra: (1) that contain a distinctive high amplitude spectral peak and (2) ...
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Concrete example of latent variables and observables plugged into the Bayes' rule

In the context of the variational auto-encoder, can someone give me a concrete example of the application of the Bayes' rule $$p_{\theta}(z|x)=\frac{p_{\theta}(x|z)p(z)}{p(x)}$$ for a given latent ...
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157 views

How does deepfake technology work with multiple people in a single frame?

I was watching this video from corridor crew, according to them, they have used deepfake technology to create this video. I myself have never made a deepfake videos, but I have enough knowledge in the ...
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28 views

Reduce same sample distance in VAE encodings

I'm working on a beta VAE model learning a latent representation used as a similarity metric for image registration. One of the main problems I'm facing is that the encoder + sampler output doesn't ...
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Are there any general tips for troubleshooting a VAE when apparently it is not learning?

I am trying to train a VAE for anomaly detection. I chose one architecture from this Github repository and I adjusted the input and output to match what I need. In my case, the input (and hence the ...