Questions tagged [comparison]

For questions that involve the comparison of two AI concepts, terms or expressions. An example of such a question is: how does machine learning compare to deep learning?

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91
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10answers
15k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

These two terms seem to be related, especially in their application in computer science and software engineering. Is one a subset of another? Is one a tool used to build a system for the other? What ...
79
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3answers
70k views

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning?

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning? How is it different from supervised learning?
64
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6answers
55k views

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning?

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning? It seems to me that any model-free learner, learning through trial and error, could be reframed as model-based. In ...
44
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3answers
23k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
36
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5answers
66k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
36
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2answers
14k views

What is the relation between Q-learning and policy gradients methods?

As far as I understand, Q-learning and policy gradients (PG) are the two major approaches used to solve RL problems. While Q-learning aims to predict the reward of a certain action taken in a certain ...
35
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8answers
16k views

Is a switch from R to Python worth it? [closed]

I just finished a 1-year Data Science master's program where we were taught R. I found that Python is more popular and has a larger community in AI. What are the advantages that Python may have over R ...
30
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2answers
1k views

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

How is a neural network having the "deep" adjective actually distinguished from other similar networks?
21
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4answers
56k views

Why does C++ seem less widely used than Python in AI?

I just want to know why do machine learning engineers and AI programmers use languages like Python to perform AI tasks and not C++, even though C++ is technically a more powerful language than Python.
20
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3answers
2k views

How are Artificial Neural Networks and the Biological Neural Networks similar and different?

I've heard multiple times that "Neural Networks are the best approximation we have to model the human brain", and I think it is commonly known that Neural Networks are modelled after our brain. I ...
19
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5answers
3k views

What is the difference between machine learning and deep learning?

Can someone explain to me the difference between machine learning and deep learning? Is it possible to learn deep learning without knowing machine learning?
18
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1answer
24k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
18
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1answer
454 views

Are these two versions of back-propagation equivalent?

Just for fun, I am trying to develop a neural network. Now, for backpropagation I saw two techniques. The first one is used here and in many other places too. What it does is: It computes the ...
17
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1answer
423 views

Could a Boltzmann machine store more patterns than a Hopfield net?

This is from a closed beta for AI, with this question being posted by user number 47. All credit to them. According to Wikipedia, Boltzmann machines can be seen as the stochastic, generative ...
16
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3answers
8k views

What is the difference between actor-critic and advantage actor-critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between actor-critic and advantage actor-critic. At least, I know they are different from asynchronous advantage actor-critic (A3C), as A3C adds an ...
16
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2answers
4k views

Why has the cross-entropy become the classification standard loss function and not Kullback-Leibler divergence?

The cross-entropy is identical to the KL divergence plus the entropy of the target distribution. The KL divergence equals zero when the two distributions are the same, which seems more intuitive to me ...
15
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2answers
1k views

When is deep learning overkill?

For example, for classifying emails as spam, is it worthwhile - from a time/accuracy perspective - to apply deep learning (if possible) instead of another machine learning algorithm? Will deep ...
15
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2answers
16k views

Why is Sanskrit the best language for AI?

According to NASA scientist Rick Briggs, Sanskrit is the best language for AI. I want to know how Sanskrit is useful. What's the problem with other languages? Are they really using Sanskrit in AI ...
15
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1answer
14k views

How does LSTM in deep reinforcement learning differ from experience replay?

In the paper Deep Recurrent Q-Learning for Partially Observable MDPs, the author processed the Atari game frames with an LSTM layer at the end. My questions are: How does this method differ from the ...
14
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2answers
8k views

What is the difference between reinforcement learning and optimal control?

Coming from a process (optimal) control background, I have begun studying the field of deep reinforcement learning. Sutton & Barto (2015) state that particularly important (to the writing of the ...
13
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4answers
8k views

What does AI software look like, and how is it different from other software?

What does AI software look like? What is the major difference between AI software and other software?
13
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between active learning and online learning?

The definitions for these two appear to be very similar, and frankly, I've been only using the term "active learning" the past couple of years. What is the actual difference between the two? ...
13
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
12
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2answers
3k views

What is a recurrent neural network?

Surprisingly, this wasn't asked before - at least I didn't find anything besides some vaguely related questions. So, what is a recurrent neural network, and what are their advantages over regular (or ...
12
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1answer
714 views

What are hyper-heuristics, and how are they different from meta-heuristics?

I wanted to know what the differences between hyper-heuristics and meta-heuristics are, and what their main applications are. Which problems are suited to be solved by hyper-heuristics?
12
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2answers
7k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and computational intelligence?

Having analyzed and reviewed a certain amount of articles and questions, apparently, the expression computational intelligence (CI) is not used consistently and it is still unclear the relationship ...
12
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2answers
5k views

What is the difference between graph convolution in the spatial vs spectral domain?

I've been reading different papers regarding graph convolution and it seems that they come into two flavors: spatial and spectral. From what I can see the main difference between the two approaches is ...
11
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1answer
6k views

Are humans superior to machines in chess?

A friend of mine, who is an International Master at chess, told me that humans were superior to machines provided you didn't impose the time constraints that exist in competitive chess (40 moves in 2 ...
11
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5answers
8k views

What is the fundamental difference between CNN and RNN?

What is the fundamental difference between convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks? Where are they applied?
11
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1answer
767 views

Are Q-learning and SARSA the same when action selection is greedy?

I'm currently studying reinforcement learning and I'm having difficulties with question 6.12 in Sutton and Barto's book. Suppose action selection is greedy. Is Q-learning then exactly the same ...
11
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3answers
444 views

Who was the first person to recognize the distinction between human-like general intelligence and domain-specific intelligence?

In the 1950s, there were widely-held beliefs that "Artificial Intelligence" will quickly become both self-conscious and smart-enough to win chess with humans. Various people suggested time frames of e....
10
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3answers
7k views

What is the relation between semi-supervised and self-supervised visual representation learning?

What's the differences between semi-supervised learning and self-supervised visual representation learning, and how they are connected?
10
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2answers
7k views

What is the difference between goal-based and utility-based agents?

What is the difference between goal-based and utility-based agents? Please, provide a real-world example.
10
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3answers
3k views

Can the decoder in a transformer model be parallelized like the encoder?

Can the decoder in a transformer model be parallelized like the encoder? As far as I understand, the encoder has all the tokens in the sequence to compute the self-attention scores. But for a decoder,...
10
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2answers
2k views

What's the difference between hyperbolic tangent and sigmoid neurons?

Two common activation functions used in deep learning are the hyperbolic tangent function and the sigmoid activation function. I understand that the hyperbolic tangent is just a rescaling and ...
10
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between expected return and value function?

I've seen numerous mathematical explanations of reward, value functions $V(s)$, and return functions. The reward provides an immediate return for being in a specific state. The better the reward, the ...
10
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1answer
933 views

Why is the merged neural network of AlphaGo Zero more efficient than two separate neural networks?

AlphaGo Zero contains several improvements compared to its predecessors. Architectural details of Alpha Go Zero can be seen in this cheat sheet. One of those improvements is using a single neural ...
10
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2answers
5k views

Why do we prefer ReLU over linear activation functions?

The ReLU activation function is defined as follows $$y = \operatorname{max}(0,x)$$ And the linear activation function is defined as follows $$y = x$$ The ReLU nonlinearity just clips the values ...
9
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4answers
23k views

Should I use C# or Python for AI? [closed]

I've been seeing a lot of tutorials on the internet about AI that are mostly done with Python. Apart from these, I've seen C# being used in AI topics, but in things like self-driving cars. I already ...
9
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between Q-learning, Deep Q-learning and Deep Q-network?

Q-learning uses a table to store all state-action pairs. Q-learning is a model-free RL algorithm, so how could there be the one called Deep Q-learning, as deep means using DNN; or maybe the state-...
9
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2answers
155 views

How do evolutionary algorithms have advantages over the conventional backpropagation methods?

How does employing evolutionary algorithms to design and train artificial neural networks have advantages over using the conventional backpropagation algorithms?
9
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1answer
3k views

How is BERT different from the original transformer architecture?

As far as I can tell, BERT is a type of Transformer architecture. What I do not understand is: How is Bert different from the original transformer architecture? What tasks are better suited for BERT,...
9
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2answers
283 views

What is the difference between search and learning?

I came across an article, The Bitter Truth, via the Two Minute Papers YouTube Channel. Rich Sutton says... One thing that should be learned from the bitter lesson is the great power of general ...
9
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4answers
4k views

When to choose Stochastic Hill Climbing over Steepest Hill Climbing?

Stochastic Hill Climbing generally performs worse than Steepest Hill Climbing, but what are the cases in which the former performs better?
9
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between memetic algorithms and genetic algorithms?

What is the difference between memetic algorithms and genetic algorithms? Is an individual's lifetime a learning part of memetic algorithms?
9
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2answers
3k views

What are the main differences between a perceptron and a naive Bayes classifier?

What are the main differences between a perceptron and a naive Bayes classifier?
8
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3answers
333 views

Is Artificial Intelligence restricted to electrical based technology?

According to Wikipedia: AI is intelligence exhibited by machines. I have been wondering if with the recent biological advancements, is there already a non-electrical-based "machine" that is ...
8
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1answer
11k views

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

In section 2.4 (p. 46) of the book Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach (3rd edition), Russell and Norvig write The job of AI is to design an agent program that implements the agent function — ...
8
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between reinforcement learning and evolutionary algorithms?

What is the difference between reinforcement learning (RL) and evolutionary algorithms (EA)? I am trying to understand the basics of RL, but I do not yet have practical experience with RL. I know ...
8
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2answers
2k views

Is word embedding a form of feature extraction?

Feature extraction is a concept concerning the translation of raw data into the inputs that a particular machine learning algorithm requires. These derived features from the raw data that are actually ...

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