Questions tagged [deep-learning]

For questions related to deep learning, which refers to a subset of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) with multiple hidden layers. The adjective deep thus refers to the number of layers of the ANNs. The expression deep learning was apparently introduced (although not in the context of machine learning or ANNs) in 1986 by Rina Dechter in the paper "Learning while searching in constraint-satisfaction-problems".

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15 views

Can I use pertained ASR model for SER purpose?

Can I use pertained ASR(Automatic speech recognition) models like deep speech, jasper, to name a few for speech emotion recognition purposes? I was thinking by using the features which are extracted ...
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12 views

One model to output the whole vector vs different model to output each vector element

Let's say I'm using a neural net to solve some problem where the output of the net is a vector of some size. What are the advantages (and disadvantages if there are any) of training a single net to ...
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52 views

Why can't MLPs perform non-linear regression and classification?

In this page it's told: In Single Perceptron / Multi-layer Perceptron(MLP), we only have linear separability because they are composed of input and output layers(some hidden layers in MLP) What ...
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1answer
85 views

Loss function for choosing a subset of objects

I'm trying to train a neural net to choose a subset from some list of objects. The input is a list of objects $(a,b,c,d,e,f)$ and for each list of objects the label is a list composed of 0/1 - 1 for ...
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23 views

Are there any good research papers on image identification with limited data?

I'm a newbie in machine learning and I am interested in neural networks. Are there any good research papers on image identification with limited data?
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1answer
68 views

Finding patterns in binary files using deep learning

I am a newbie in deep learning and wanted to know if the problem I have at hand is a suitable fit for deep learning algorithms. I have thousands of fragments each of about 1000 bytes size (i.e. ...
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1answer
35 views

Can I use an autoencoder with high latent representational space?

I am trying to use a neural network to predict the next state output given the current state and action pairs. Both input and outputs are continuous variables. Due to the high dimensionality of each ...
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33 views

Why Pixel RNN (Row LSTM) can capture triangular contexts?

I'm reading the paper Pixel Recurrent Neural Network. I have a question about Row LSTM. Why Row LSTM can capture triangular contexts? In this paper, the kernel of the one-dimensional convolution ...
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17 views

Leaky Discriminators and Siamese GANs

Is it useful to use Siamese network structure for GANs like sharing latent space between ...
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4answers
486 views

What are the pros and cons of studying machine learning before deep learning?

I'm a biotech student and I'm currently working on single-particle tracking. For my work, I need to use aspects of deep learning (CNN, RNN and object segmentation) but I'm not familiar with these ...
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1answer
48 views

Why do we update all layers simultaneously while training a neural network?

Very deep models involve the composition of several functions or layers. The gradient tells how to update each parameter, under the assumption that the other layers do not change. In practice, we ...
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21 views

Is using a filter of size (1, x, y) on a 3D convolutional layer the same as using a filter of size (x,y) on a 2D convolutional layer?

I'm trying to predict some properties of videos with Keras using the following rough architecture: Feed each frame through the same 2-D convolutional layer. Take the outputs of this 2-D ...
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1answer
69 views

If the i.i.d. assumption holds, shouldn't the training and validation trends be exactly the same?

If the i.i.d. (independent and identically distributed) assumption holds for a training-validation set pair, shouldn't their loss trends be exactly the same, since every batch from the validation set ...
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1answer
46 views

How to add weights to one specific input feature to ensure fair training in the network?

I am trying to create a multiclass product-rating network based on product reviews and other input features. Two of the other input features are "product category" and "gender". However, I want to ...
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29 views

Single label classification into hierarchical categories using a neural network

I am working on a classification problem into progressive classes. In other words, there is some hierarchy of categories in such a way, that A < B < C, e.g. low, medium, high, very high. What ...
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2answers
44 views

Is there an online tool that can predict accuracy given only the dataset?

Is there an online tool that can predict accuracy given only the dataset as input (i.e. without the compiled model)? That would help to understand how data augmentation/distribution standardization, ...
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36 views

Creating Dataset for Image Classification

I want to develop a CNN model to identify 24 hand signs in American Sign Language. I created a custom dataset that contains 3000 images for each hand sign i.e. 72000 images in the entire dataset. For ...
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135 views

What are the actual math or computer science concepts behind these unfamiliar hyperparameters in the Deep Dream Generator's Deep Style?

I've been playing around with neural style transfer for a about a year now, and I've been doing it with two general approaches. The first has been using a script that is available on the Keras GitHub, ...
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32 views

Possible approaches to dealing with unbalanced dataset and highly biased deep learning algorithm

I have an extremely unbalanced video dataset for a two class video classification problem.All my videos in my current video dataset is $40$ second long with $900p$ resolution.However the dataset is ...
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42 views

Is Mean Squared Error Loss function a good loss function for continuous variables $0 < x < 1$

Suppose I am utilising a neural network to predict the next state, $s'$ based on the current $(s, a)$ pairs. all my neural network inputs are between 0 and 1 and the loss function for this network ...
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1answer
43 views

How to choosing the random value for parameter w in deep learning network?

I did watch the course DeepLearning of Andrew Ng and he told that we should create parameter w small like: ...
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135 views

Understanding the results of “Visualizing and Understanding Convolutional Networks”

I am trying to understand the results of the paper Visualizing and Understanding Convolutional Networks, in particular the following image: What are these 3x3 blocks and their 9 cells representing? ...
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1answer
45 views

What is “natural image domain”?

I see some papers use the term "natural image domain". I googled that but didn't find any explanation of it. I guess I understand the normal meaning of "natural image", such as the image people take ...
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34 views

What is the degree of linearity in the error propagated by Gradient Descent?

Neural Network is trained to learn a non-linear function, the more layers it has, the more is the quality of the prediction and the ability to match the real-world function correctly (lets leave aside ...
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1answer
54 views

Can a variational auto-encoder learn images composed of random noise at each pixel (each drawn from the same distribution)?

Can a variational auto-encoder (VAE) learn images whose pixels have been generated from a Gaussian distribution (e.g. $N(0, 1)$), i.e. each pixel is a sample from $N(0, 1)$? My gut feeling says no, ...
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1answer
51 views

After having selected the best model with cross-validation, for how long should I train it?

When using k-fold cross-validation in a deep learning problem, after you have computed your hyper-parameters, how do you decide how long to train your final model? My understanding is that, after the ...
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37 views

What are some real-world products or applications that can be developed using GANs?

GANs have shown good progress across a wide variety of domains ranging from image translation, image generation, text to image synthesis, audio/video generation, image super-resolution and many more. ...
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0answers
52 views

What is symbol-to-number differentiation?

I recently came across symbol-to-symbol and symbol-to-number differentiation, out of which symbol to symbol seemed fairly straightforward - the computational graph is extended to include gradient ...
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1answer
33 views

CNN High Variance across multiple trained models, what does it mean?

Background: I have a 2D CNN model that I am applying to a regression task with some uniquely extracted spectrograms. The specifics of the data set are mostly irrelevant and very domain specific so I ...
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1answer
22 views

Inner working of Bidirectional RNNs

I'm trying to understand how Bidirectional RNNs work. Specifically, I want to know whether a single cell is used with different states, or two different cells are used, each having independent ...
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1answer
30 views

Running 10 epochs on the Food-101 dataset

I’m currently working on the Food-101 dataset. I want to train a model that is greater than 85% accuracy for top-1 for the test set, using a ResNet50 or smaller network with a reasonable set of ...
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46 views

Where can I get exercises and problems to implement machine learning models and algorithms?

I'm an intermediate machine learning student and want to get more detailed and specific practical intuition about artificial intelligence. I have made a couple of searches over the well-observed ...
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1answer
43 views

Is the derivative of the loss wrt a single scalar parameter proportional to the loss?

I am wondering about the correlation between the loss and the derivative of the loss wrt a single scalar parameter, with the same sample. That means: considering a machine learning model with ...
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14 views

How can I perform object detection by cutting the image into many pieces each containing one object?

Our task is to do a special object detection: In the traditional case, the neural network will output some rectangle bounding boxes. But in our case, the network should output many nearly-vertical ...
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2answers
34 views

What does it mean to have epochs=30 in Keras' fit method given certain data?

I have read a lot of information about several notions, like batch_size, epochs, iterations, but because of explanation was without numerical examples and I am not native speaker, I have some kind of ...
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1answer
50 views

What is relation between gradient descent and regularization in deep learning?

Gradient descent is used to reduce the loss and regularization is used to fight over-fitting. Is there any relation between gradient descent and regularization, or both are independent of each other?...
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49 views

What are examples of commonly used feature and readout maps?

It is well-known that deep feedforward networks can approximate any continuous function from $\mathbb{R}^k$ to $\mathbb{R}^l$, (uniformly on compacts). However, in practice feature maps are ...
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43 views

Are there any commonly used discontinuous activation functions?

Are there any commonly used activation functions (e.g. that take values in $(0,.5)\cup (.5,1)$)? Preferably for classification? Why? I was looking for commonly used activation functions on Google, ...
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4answers
75 views

Is it normal to have the root mean squared error greater on the test dataset than on the training dataset?

I am new to deep learning. I am training a model and I am getting a root mean squared error (RMSE) greater on the test dataset than on the training dataset. What could be the reason behind this? Is ...
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1answer
28 views

How to estimate the accuracy upper limit of any CNN model over a computer vision classification task

We are given a computer vision classification task, that is, a task that asks us to predict the category of an image over $n$ predefined classes (the so-called closed set classification problem). ...
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32 views

Why do DeconvNet use ReLU in the backward pass?

Why does DeconvNet (Zeiler, 2014) use ReLU in the backward pass (after unpooling)? Are not the feature maps values already positive due to the ReLU in the forward pass? So, why do the authors apply ...
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0answers
29 views

Do RNN solves the need for LSTM and/or multiple states in Deep Q-Learning?

Introduction I am trying to setup a Deep Q-Learning agent. I have looked that the papers Playing Atari with Deep Reinforcement Learning as well as Deep Recurrent Q-Learning for Partially Observable ...
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28 views

How do we minimize loss for a single neuron with a feedback?

Suppose we had a series of single-dimensional data points $X = \{x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n \}$, where $n$ is the number of data points and there corresponding output values $T = \{t_1, t_2, \dots, t_n \}$. ...
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0answers
25 views

Is there any wrong in my focal loss derivation?

Assume $\mathbf{X} \in R^{N, C}$ is the input of the softmax $\mathbf{P} \in R^{N, C}$, where $N$ is number of examples and $C$ is number of classes: $$\mathbf{p}_i = \left[ \frac{e^{x_{ik}}}{\sum_{j=...
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24 views

length independent sequence classification methods

I am looking to do sequence classification using deep learning. The length of my sequences can vary from a few hundred to several tens of thousands of characters. I was wondering what is a good ...
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1answer
85 views

Is there any programming language designed by deep learning?

i mean Programming Language Implementation by Deep Learning / AI. I want to know this kind of information, any links and news are very welcome. sure AI drawing picture and design PCB, so why not.
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2answers
89 views

Is ReLU a non-linear activation function?

According to this blog post The purpose of an activation function is to add some kind of non-linear property to the function The sigmoid is typically used as an activation function of a unit of a ...
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1answer
36 views

How can I develop a reinforcement learning agent that plays memory cards game?

I am new to RL, and I am thinking of doing a little project. The goal of the project is to learn an agent play the memory game with cards. I already created the program for detecting the cards on the ...
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50 views

What are the pros and cons of deep learning and machine learning to develop a trading system?

As I want to start coding a new Trading AI in this year (first based on Python and later maybe in C++) I stumbled over the following question: Today, I would like to make a pro/contra list with you ...
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1answer
68 views

Can a fully convolutional network always return an image of the same size as the original?

I'm trying to perform a segmentation task on images of multiple sizes using fully convolutional neural networks. Currently, I'm using EfficientNet as a feature extractor, and adding a deconvolution/...

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