Questions tagged [definitions]

For questions about the definition of terms used in artificial intelligence research and development, including the definition of intelligence, algorithms, jargon, principles, methodologies, mathematical terms, concepts, topologies, architectures, designs, jargon, and AI domains such as robotics, network training, or automated vehicles.

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3
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1answer
189 views

What does the Markov assumption say about the history of state sequences?

Does the Markov assumption say that the conditional probability of the next state only depends on the current state or does it say that the conditional probability depends on a fixed finite number of ...
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2answers
141 views

What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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1answer
56 views

What do the subscripts mean in $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$?

A neural network can apparently be denoted as $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$. What do these subscripts $t, n, \sigma$ and $L$ mean? Could you link me to a paper, article or webpage with an explanation for this?
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1answer
49 views

What is the difference between the definition of a stationary policy in reinforcement learning and contextual bandit?

A stationary policy is a function that maps a state to a probability distribution of actions. In a contextual bandit problem, a state itself does not include the history. But in a reinforcement ...
2
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1answer
42 views

In the graph search version of A*, can I stop the search the first time I encounter the goal node?

I am going through Russel and Norvig's Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd edition). I was reading the part regarding the A* algorithm A* graph search version is optimal when heuristic ...
3
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1answer
57 views

What is a non-starving policy in reinforcement learning?

In the paper, Eligibility Traces for off-Policy Policy Evaluation (2010), by Doina Precup et al., mentioned the term "non-starving" many times. The specific use of the term was like "non-starving ...
2
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2answers
90 views

Is unsupervised learning a branch of AI?

From Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, a book by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, this is the definition of AI: We define AI as the study of agents that receive percepts from the ...
2
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1answer
38 views

Is a state that includes only the past n-step price records partially observable?

I'm currently working on a project to make an DQN agent that decides whether to charge or discharge an electric vehicle according to hourly changing price to sell or buy. The price pattern also varies ...
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1answer
81 views

What is an identity recurrent neural network?

What is an identity recurrent neural network (IRNN)? What is the difference between an IRNN and RNN?
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0answers
29 views

Pooling vs Subsampling: Multiple Definitions?

I have seen people using pooling and subsampling synonymously. I have also seen people use them as different processes. I am not sure though if I have correctly inferred what they mean, when they use ...
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0answers
49 views

What is the meaning of the words 'bias' and 'variance' in RL?

In algorithms like MC/TD (tabular value approximation) two of the metrics used to measure their performance are the bias and the variance. What do these terms mean? And which characteristic of the ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Clarification on definition of convolution: Is adding the Frobenius inner products between filter and input part of convolution or a separate step?

From the literature I have read so far, it is not clear how exactly the convolution operation is defined. It seems people use two different definitions: Let us assume we are given an $n_w \times n_h \...
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1answer
20 views

Why are activation functions independent layers in CNNs rather than part of convolutional layers?

I have been reading up on CNNs. One of the different confusing things has been that people always talk of normalization layers. A common normalization layer is a ReLU layer. But I never encountered an ...
3
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2answers
45 views

Are feature maps merged or are they passed on as they are?

I am unsure about the following parts of the architecture and mechanics of convolution layers in CNNs. Possibly, this is implementation-dependent though. First question: Say I have 2 convolution ...
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0answers
27 views

Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
2
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2answers
45 views

Can non-Markov environments also be deterministic?

The definition of deterministic environment I am familiar with goes as follows: The next state of the agent depends only on the current state and the action chosen by the agent. By exclusion, ...
2
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0answers
68 views

What is a conditional random field?

I new in machine learning, especially in Conditional Random Fields (CRF). I have read several articles and papers and in there is always associated with HMM and sequences classification. I don't ...
3
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1answer
66 views

Which models accept numerical parameters and produce a numerical output?

I need a model that will take in a few numerical parameters, and give back a numerical answer (Context: predicting a slope based on environmental factors without having to actually take measurements ...
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0answers
18 views

Is learning from demonstration equal to plan recognition?

The amount of literature about “Learning from demonstration” (LfD) is huge. The idea, in short, is that a human operator is moving the robot's arm slowly, the motion gets recorded, and after pressing ...
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1answer
220 views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
6
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1answer
975 views

What is the credit assignment problem?

In reinforcement learning (RL), the credit assignment problem (CAP) seems to be an important problem. What is the CAP? Why is it relevant to RL?
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1answer
77 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
2
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1answer
41 views

What is the prediction accuracy?

In simple words, what is the prediction accuracy? What is it based on? How does it help? When is it used?
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2answers
72 views

What is the difference between Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Recognition?

I found Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Recognition as two different categories on paperswithcode.com. Should both be the same as my understanding? If not what's the difference?
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1answer
303 views

What is a temporal feature?

What is a temporal feature, what features make something temporal in nature? Is this problem agnostic? How does it change from different fields of study?
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0answers
28 views

What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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2answers
981 views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
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3answers
179 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
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1answer
82 views

When is content-based more appropriate than collaborative filtering?

I know the difference between content-based and collaborative filtering approach in recommender systems. I also know some of the articles said collaborative filtering have some advantages than content-...
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0answers
69 views

What is a generalized MDP?

What is a generalized MDP? How is it different than a "regular" MDP? How does it generalise the notion of an MDP? Why do we need a generalised MDP? Do generalised MDPs have some practical usefulness ...
4
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3answers
169 views

Do we have to use CNN for Deep Q Learning?

I read top articles on Google Search about Deep Q-Learning: https://medium.freecodecamp.org/an-introduction-to-deep-q-learning-lets-play-doom-54d02d8017d8 https://skymind.ai/wiki/deep-reinforcement-...
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0answers
101 views

What is a graph neural network?

What is a graph neural network (GNN)? How is a GNN different from a NN? How exactly is a GNN related to graphs? What are the components of a GNN? What are the inputs and outputs of GNNs? How can ...
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2answers
911 views

What is geometric deep learning?

What is geometric deep learning (GDL)? How is it different from deep learning? Why do we need GDL? What are some applications of GDL?
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2answers
64 views

Is the definition of machine learning by Mitchell in his book “Machine Learning” valid?

The definition machine learning is as follows: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and performance measure P, if its performance at task T, as ...
2
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1answer
66 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
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2answers
69 views

How are the reward functions $R(s)$, $R(s, a)$ and $R(s, a, s')$ equivalent?

In this video, the lecturer states that $R(s)$, $R(s, a)$ and $R(s, a, s')$ are equivalent representations of the reward function. Intuitively, this is the case, according to the same lecturer, ...
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4answers
107 views

What does learning mean?

Can someone explain what is the process of learning? What does it mean to learn something?
4
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2answers
930 views

What is the difference between search and planning?

I'm studying Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach, Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig, specifically about search and planning arguments. I don't understand the difference between the two terms. I was ...
3
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3answers
207 views

Can an AI model be based on the principles of rationalism?

Are current AI models entirely empiricist? Can they be rationalist?If so How?
3
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1answer
65 views

Is an artificial intelligence a program or an hardware?

Is an artificial intelligence a program (or a set of programs) or an hardware?
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1answer
80 views

How important are notations for Artificial Intelligence?

According to WIkipedia, a notation is a semiotics term to describe artistic disciplines. Famous examples are: chess notation, Siteswap notation for juggling, Labanotation for dancing, basketball play ...
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1answer
1k views

About the definition of “soft label” and “hard label”

In semi-supervised learning, there are hard labels and soft labels. Could someone show me what's exactly the meaning of the two things?
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1answer
46 views

What kind of search method is A*?

What kind of search method is A*? Explain to me with an example.
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2answers
859 views

Is AlphaZero an example of an AGI?

From DeepMind's research paper on arxiv.org: In this paper, we apply a similar but fully generic algorithm, which we call AlphaZero, to the games of chess and shogi as well as Go, without any ...
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1answer
1k views

What is successor function?

In CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem) state is a "black box"- any data structure that supports a successor function, heuristic function, and goal test. What is the successor function ?
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3answers
121 views

Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
4
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1answer
5k views

How does the uniform-cost search algorithm work?

What is the uniform-cost search (UCS) algorithm? How does it work? I would appreciate seeing a graphical execution of the algorithm. How does the frontier evolve in the case of UCS?
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2answers
1k views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
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0answers
348 views

Is my understanding of the differences between MDP, Semi MDP and POMDP correct?

I just wanted to confirm that my understanding of the different Markov Decision Processes are correct, because they are the fundamentals of reinforcement learning. Also, I read a few literature ...
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1answer
2k views

What are ontologies in AI?

What exactly are ontologies in AI? How should I write them and why are they important?