Questions tagged [definitions]

For questions about the definition of terms used in artificial intelligence research and development, including the definition of intelligence, algorithms, jargon, principles, methodologies, mathematical terms, concepts, topologies, architectures, designs, jargon, and AI domains such as robotics, network training, or automated vehicles.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
30 views

What is the definition for trace of a tensor?

Tensor is a multi-dimensional ordered collection of elements, which is used in deep learning to store and process data as well as intermediate steps. We are aware of the trace of a two-dimensional ...
5
votes
1answer
841 views

What is a graph neural network?

What is a graph neural network (GNN)? Here are some sub-questions How is a GNN different from a NN? How exactly is a GNN related to graphs? What are the components of a GNN? What are the inputs and ...
5
votes
1answer
217 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What makes a transformer a transformer?

Transformers are modified heavily in recent research. But what exactly makes a transformer a transformer? What is the core part of a transformer? Is it the self-attention, the parallelism, or ...
1
vote
2answers
124 views

Why was the VC dimension not defined for all configurations of $d$ points?

Let's start with a typical definition of the VC dimension (as described in this book) Definition $3.10$ (VC-dimension) The $V C$ -dimension of a hypothesis set $\mathcal{H}$ is the size of the ...
4
votes
1answer
779 views

If expert systems are a bunch of if-then-else statements, then how are they termed as AI?

An artificial intelligence (AI) is often defined as something that can learn over time and can imitate human behaviors. If an Expert system (e.g. MYCIN) that only involves if-then-else statements ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

What is the rigorous and formal definition for the direction pointed by a gradient?

Consider the following definition of derivative from the chapter named Vector Calculus from the test book titled Mathematics for Machine Learning by Marc Peter Deisenroth et al. Definition 5.2 (...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the difference between search and planning?

I'm reading the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig). However, I don't understand the difference between search and planning. I was more confused when I ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

how to go from mathematical problem to neural network (and back)?

I am a little confused on how, you can find online papers that describe complex Machine Learning formulas in a mathematical/probabilistic way, and, in the other hands, easy tutorials that teach you ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Is my understanding on "smooth approximation" correct?

Consider the following details regarding Softplus activation function $$\text{Softplus}(x) = \dfrac{\log(1+e^{\beta x})}{\beta}$$ SoftPlus is a smooth approximation to the ReLU function and can be ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

What is the difference between parametric and non-parametric models?

A model can be classified as parametric or non-parametric. How are models classified as parametric and non-parametric models? What is the difference between the two approaches?
4
votes
2answers
412 views

When can I call an entity a hyperparameter?

As per my knowledge, any entity that is learnable by a training algorithm can be called a parameter. Weights of a neural network are called parameters because of this reason only. But I have doubts ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

What is meant by sub-region of an image?

Consider the following sentences from the research paper titled PatternNet: Visual Pattern Mining with Deep Neural Network by Hongzhi Li et al. The value of each pixel in a feature map is the ...
5
votes
1answer
7k views

How does the uniform-cost search algorithm work?

What is the uniform-cost search (UCS) algorithm? How does it work? I would appreciate seeing a graphical execution of the algorithm. How does the frontier evolve in the case of UCS?
12
votes
1answer
714 views

What are hyper-heuristics, and how are they different from meta-heuristics?

I wanted to know what the differences between hyper-heuristics and meta-heuristics are, and what their main applications are. Which problems are suited to be solved by hyper-heuristics?
2
votes
1answer
112 views

How to define the "Pre-Processing" in machine learning?

Is every process (such as data acquisition, splitting the data for validation, data cleaning, or feature engineering) that is done on the data before we train the model always called the pre-...
3
votes
1answer
58 views

In reinforcement learning, why are policies defined as functions of states and not observations?

I am new to RL and I am following Sutton & Barto's book. My doubt is, when we talk about the policy of our agent, we say it is the probability of taking some action $a$ given the state $s$. ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

What are the definitions for the content and style of an image without using deep neural network?

In deep learning, an image is said to contain two types of features. One is the content of the image and the other is the style of the image. Deep neural networks are generally used to obtain both ...
7
votes
1answer
550 views

What is ergodicity in a Markov Decision Process (MDP)?

I have read about the concept of ergodicity on the safe RL paper by Moldovan (section 3.2) and the RL book by Sutton (chapter 10.3, 2nd paragraph). The first one says that "a belief over MDPs is ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Can I call any function a signal?

While reading the Notation of the paper titled Geometric Deep Learning Grids, Groups, Graphs, Geodesics, and Gauges, I came across the following notations. $$ \...
4
votes
1answer
238 views

What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

Explaining AI to Non-Technical Individuals

How does one approach proposing AI to management? This is something I have struggled with for a long time. I want to implement AI toward a specific problem in my place of work. My supervisors are ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

What are mathematically the factors of variation in deep learning?

The following paragraph from an answer tells us about factors of variation Factors of variation are some factors which determine varieties in observed data. If that factors change, the behaviour of ...
0
votes
2answers
98 views

What is the formal definition for manifold in artificial intelligence?

We come across the word "manifold" in artificial intelligence, especially in the domains where learning is done based on data instances. What is the formal definition for manifold?
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Is there any difference between the phrases "text representation" and "text feature representation"?

Text representation, in simple words, is representing text in sensible numeric form. You can read in detail from the following paragraph Text representation is one of the fundamental problems in text ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

What is meant by correlation structure?

I know only about the Pearson's correlation coefficient in literature. Covariance between two random variables $X$ and $Y$ is defined as $$Cov[X, Y] = \mathbb{E}[(X - \mathbb{E}[X])(Y-\mathbb{E}[Y])]$$...
0
votes
2answers
57 views

What is the definition of "confidence interval" around a (complicated) function?

Consider the following excerpt from Chapter 5: Machine Learning Basics from the book titled Deep Learning (by Aaron Courville et al.) Machine learning is essentially a form of applied statistics with ...
17
votes
3answers
4k views

What is geometric deep learning?

What is geometric deep learning (GDL)? Here are a few sub-questions How is it different from deep learning? Why do we need GDL? What are some applications of GDL?
16
votes
4answers
10k views

What is non-Euclidean data?

What is non-Euclidean data? Here are some sub-questions Where does this type of data arise? I have come across this term in the context of geometric deep learning and graph neural networks. ...
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Does self-supervised learning require auxiliary tasks?

Self-supervised learning algorithms provide labels automatically. But, it is not clear what else is required for an algorithm to fall under the category "self-supervised": Some say, self-...
23
votes
7answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
7
votes
1answer
8k views

What is the definition of "soft label" and "hard label"?

In semi-supervised learning, there are hard labels and soft labels. Could someone tell me the meaning and definition of the two things?
2
votes
1answer
353 views

What exactly is a Parzen?

I came across the term "Parzen" while reading the research paper titled Generative Adversarial Nets. It has been used in the research paper in two contexts. #1: In phrase "Parzen window&...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Does "fusion" in "feature fusion" has any formal definition?

I encountered the phrase "fusing features" several times in the literature. I am providing an excerpt from a research paper to provide context for usage of the word fusion. The reason is ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

What is a "surrogate model"?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

What is meant by "Zero-Shot Visual Recognition"?

Many recent research papers contain the phrase "Zero-Shot Visual Recognition". What exactly is meant by zero-shot visual recognition? Does the task need only images or also the other data ...
10
votes
5answers
625 views

What is "backprop"?

What does "backprop" mean? Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How should we interpret "common coarsening" in this proof of the uniqueness of coarsest bisimulation?

On page 4 of this pdf in a theoretical RL course, we have a proof of the uniquness of the coarsest bisimulation. A bisimulation $\phi$ is a mapping from states $s \in\mathcal{S}$ to abstract states $\...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Is the formula $\frac {1}{s}\sum _{j=1}^{s}|d_{j}-y_{j}(t)|$ the correct form of 0-1 loss function, in the context of Perceptron?

Per page 7 of this MIT lecture notes, the original single-layer Perceptron uses 0-1 loss function. Wikipedia uses $${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{s}}\sum _{j=1}^{s}|d_{j}-y_{j}(t)|} \tag{1}$$ to denote ...
7
votes
1answer
278 views

Are all fully observable environments episodic?

According to the definition of a fully observable environment in Russell & Norvig, AIMA (2nd ed), pages 41-44, an environment is only fully observable if it requires zero memory for an agent to ...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

Why do we commonly use the $\log$ to squash frequencies?

Term frequency and inverse document frequency are well-known terms in information retrieval. I am presenting the definitions for both from p:12,13 of Vector Semantics and Embeddings On term frequency ...
2
votes
1answer
218 views

What is teacher forcing?

In the paper Neural Programmer-Interpreters, the authors use the teacher forcing technique, but what exactly is it?
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Is it okay to think of any dataset in artificial intelligence as a mathematical set?

A dataset is a collection of data points. It is known that the data points in the dataset can repeat. And the repetition does matter for building AI models. So, why does the word dataset contain the ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Why don't ELUs multiply the linear portion by $\alpha$?

An exponential linear unit (as proposed by Clevert et al.) uses the function: \begin{align} \text{ELU}_\alpha(x) = \begin{cases} \alpha(e^x - 1), &\text{if } x < 0\\ x, \text{if} &\text{if ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Fitting a gaussian distribution into another distribution - and correlation with Machine Learning

Assume we have two vectors, containing random samples (maybe audio data?). Their distribution can be approximated to a normal distribution, so we can calculate their mean and standard deviation. I am ...
4
votes
2answers
68 views

How widely accepted is the definition of intelligence by Marcus Hutter & Shane Legg?

I came across several papers by M. Hutter & S. Legg. Especially this one: Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence, Shane Legg, Marcus Hutter Given that it was published back ...
4
votes
3answers
297 views

What exactly are partially observable environments?

I have trouble understanding the meaning of partially observable environments. Here's my doubt. According to what I understand, the state of the environment is what precisely determines the next state ...
18
votes
1answer
24k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
2
votes
3answers
121 views

How would you intuitively but rigorously explain what the VC dimension is?

The VC dimension is a very important concept in computational/statistical learning theory. However, the first time you read its definition, you may not immediately understand what it really represents ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Is there a clear distinction between Artificial Intelligence and running a sequential program?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is often defined as a machine that is intelligent, or one that can think rationally. From a high-level perspective, things like self-driving car or Alpha-Go can easily be ...