Questions tagged [definitions]

For questions about the definition of terms used in artificial intelligence research and development, including the definition of intelligence, algorithms, jargon, principles, methodologies, mathematical terms, concepts, topologies, architectures, designs, jargon, and AI domains such as robotics, network training, or automated vehicles.

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44
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3answers
23k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
38
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4answers
1k views

What is the concept of the technological singularity?

I've heard the idea of the technological singularity, what is it and how does it relate to Artificial Intelligence? Is this the theoretical point where Artificial Intelligence machines have progressed ...
35
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5answers
66k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
28
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7answers
5k views

What are the minimum requirements to call something AI?

I believe artificial intelligence (AI) term is overused nowadays. For example, people see that something is self-moving and they call it AI, even if it's on autopilot (like cars or planes) or there is ...
23
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7answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
20
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3answers
6k views

Why can't OCR be perceived as a good example of AI?

On the Wikipedia page about AI, we can read: Optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence" having become a routine technology. On the other hand, ...
18
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1answer
13k views

What is the credit assignment problem?

In reinforcement learning (RL), the credit assignment problem (CAP) seems to be an important problem. What is the CAP? Why is it relevant to RL?
18
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1answer
24k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
17
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3answers
4k views

What is geometric deep learning?

What is geometric deep learning (GDL)? Here are a few sub-questions How is it different from deep learning? Why do we need GDL? What are some applications of GDL?
16
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1answer
410 views

Are search engines considered AI?

Are search engines considered AI because of the way they analyze what you search for and remember it? Or how they send you ads of what you've searched for recently? Is this considered AI or just ...
16
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4answers
10k views

What is non-Euclidean data?

What is non-Euclidean data? Here are some sub-questions Where does this type of data arise? I have come across this term in the context of geometric deep learning and graph neural networks. ...
16
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5answers
604 views

What is the most general definition of "intelligence"?

When we talk about artificial intelligence, human intelligence or any other form of intelligence, what do we mean by the term intelligence in a general sense? What would you call intelligent and what ...
14
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5answers
3k views

What is the idea called involving an AI that will eventually rule humanity?

It's an idea I heard a while back but couldn't remember the name of. It involves the existence and development of an AI that will eventually rule the world and that if you don't fund or progress the ...
12
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2answers
3k views

What is a recurrent neural network?

Surprisingly, this wasn't asked before - at least I didn't find anything besides some vaguely related questions. So, what is a recurrent neural network, and what are their advantages over regular (or ...
12
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2answers
13k views

What are bottleneck features?

In the blog post Building powerful image classification models using very little data, bottleneck features are mentioned. What are the bottleneck features? Do they change with the architecture that is ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Is AlphaZero an example of an AGI?

From DeepMind's research paper on arxiv.org: In this paper, we apply a similar but fully generic algorithm, which we call AlphaZero, to the games of chess and shogi as well as Go, without any ...
12
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1answer
713 views

What are hyper-heuristics, and how are they different from meta-heuristics?

I wanted to know what the differences between hyper-heuristics and meta-heuristics are, and what their main applications are. Which problems are suited to be solved by hyper-heuristics?
12
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2answers
7k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and computational intelligence?

Having analyzed and reviewed a certain amount of articles and questions, apparently, the expression computational intelligence (CI) is not used consistently and it is still unclear the relationship ...
11
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13answers
13k views

Is AI living or non-living?

I'm a bit confused about the definition of life. Can AI systems be called 'living'? Because they can do most of the things that we can. They can even communicate with one another. They are not ...
11
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3answers
277 views

What is a deep neural network? [duplicate]

What is the definition of a deep neural network? Why are they so popular or important?
11
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1answer
4k views

What are ontologies in AI?

What exactly are ontologies in AI? How should I write them and why are they important?
10
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5answers
625 views

What is "backprop"?

What does "backprop" mean? Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?
10
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3answers
361 views

Can a technological singularity only occur with superintelligence?

In Chapter 26 of the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd edition), the textbook discusses "technological singularity". It quotes I.J. Good, who wrote in 1965: Let an ultra-...
9
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1answer
13k views

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
9
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3answers
326 views

What is a support vector machine?

What is a support vector machine (SVM)? Is an SVM a kind of a neural network, meaning it has nodes and weights, etc.? What is it best used for? Where I can find information about these?
9
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3answers
2k views

What are the criteria for a system to be considered intelligent? [duplicate]

For example, could you provide reasons why a sundial is not "intelligent"? A sundial senses its environment and acts rationally. It outputs the time. It also stores percepts. (The numbers the ...
8
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3answers
1k views

What are the differences between an agent and a model?

In the context of Artificial Intelligence, sometimes people use the word "agent" and sometimes use the word "model" to refer to the output of the whole "AI-process". For ...
8
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1answer
580 views

What is "early stopping" in machine learning?

What is early stopping in machine learning and, in general, artificial intelligence? What are the advantages of using this method? How does it help exactly? I'd be interested in perspectives and ...
8
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1answer
682 views

Can neural networks with a sigmoid as the activation function of the output layer approximate continuous functions?

Neural networks are commonly used for classification tasks, in fact from this post it seems like that's where they shine brightest. However, when we want to classify using neural networks, we often ...
7
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4answers
184 views

Does the recent advent of a Go playing computer represent Artificial Intelligence?

I read that in the spring of 2016 a computer Go program was finally able to beat a professional human for the first time. Now that this milestone has been reached, does that represent a significant ...
7
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2answers
3k views

What is the definition of rationality?

I'm having a little trouble with the definition of rationality, which goes something like: An agent is rational if it maximizes its performance measure given its current knowledge. I've read that ...
7
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1answer
27k views

What are some examples of intelligent agents for each intelligent agent class?

There are several classes of intelligent agents, such as: simple reflex agents model-based reflex agents goal-based agents utility-based agents learning agents Each of these agents behaves slightly ...
7
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1answer
8k views

What is the definition of "soft label" and "hard label"?

In semi-supervised learning, there are hard labels and soft labels. Could someone tell me the meaning and definition of the two things?
7
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2answers
254 views

Are humans intelligent according to the definition of an intelligent agent?

Given the following definition of an intelligent agent (taken from a Wikipedia article) If an agent acts so as to maximize the expected value of a performance measure based on past experience and ...
7
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1answer
542 views

What is ergodicity in a Markov Decision Process (MDP)?

I have read about the concept of ergodicity on the safe RL paper by Moldovan (section 3.2) and the RL book by Sutton (chapter 10.3, 2nd paragraph). The first one says that "a belief over MDPs is ...
7
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2answers
139 views

What does learning mean?

Can someone explain what is the process of learning? What does it mean to learn something?
7
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1answer
256 views

What is predicate argument recognition?

There is a study about The Necessity of Parsing for Predicate Argument Recognition, however I couldn't find much information about 'Predicate Argument Recognition' which could explain it. What is it ...
7
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between search and planning?

I'm reading the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig). However, I don't understand the difference between search and planning. I was more confused when I ...
7
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1answer
277 views

Are all fully observable environments episodic?

According to the definition of a fully observable environment in Russell & Norvig, AIMA (2nd ed), pages 41-44, an environment is only fully observable if it requires zero memory for an agent to ...
7
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3answers
443 views

What types of applications qualify as "compound intelligences"?

A question about swarm intelligence as a potential method of strong general AI came up recently, and yielded some useful answers and clarifications regarding the nature of swarm intelligence. But it ...
6
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3answers
237 views

Is there any artificially intelligent system that really mimics human intelligence?

After having read something that Elon Musk said about artificial intelligence and how it could affect our lives, I've been reading about artificial intelligence, deep learning, etc. The recurrent ...
6
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1answer
3k views

What are the state space and the state transition function in AI?

I'm studying for my AI final exam, and I'm stuck in the state space representation. I understand initial and goal states, but what I don't understand is the state space and state transition function. ...
6
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1answer
1k views

What is the relation between an environment, a state and a model?

In particular, I would like to have a simple definition of "environment" and "state". What are the differences between those two concepts? Also, I would like to know how the concept of model relates ...
6
votes
1answer
413 views

What is the mathematical definition of an activation function? [duplicate]

What is the mathematical definition of an activation function to be used in a neural network? So far I did not find a precise one, summarizing which criterions (e.g. monotonicity, differentiability, ...
6
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1answer
5k views

What is the difference between local search and global search algorithms?

What is the difference between local search and global (or complete) search algorithms?
6
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2answers
572 views

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?
6
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2answers
670 views

How can the multiple intelligences model be incorporated into AI?

I have been wondering since a while ago about the theory of multiple intelligences and how they could fit in the field of Artificial Intelligence as a whole. We hear from time to time about Leonardo ...
6
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2answers
6k views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
5
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3answers
913 views

What is Reinforcement Learning?

What is the cleanest, easiest way to explain someone who is a non-STEM work colleague the concept of Reinforcement Learning? What are the main ideas behind Reinforcement Learning?
5
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2answers
2k views

Is Q-learning a type of model-based RL?

Model-based RL creates a model of the transition function. Tabular Q-Learning does this iteratively (without directly optimizing for the transition function). So, does this make tabular Q-learning a ...