Questions tagged [definitions]

For questions about the definition of terms used in artificial intelligence research and development, including the definition of intelligence, algorithms, jargon, principles, methodologies, mathematical terms, concepts, topologies, architectures, designs, jargon, and AI domains such as robotics, network training, or automated vehicles.

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What exactly does meta-learning in reinforcement learning setting mean?

We can use DDPG to train agents to stack objects. And stacking objects can be viewed as first grasping followed by pick and place. In this context, how does meta-reinforcement learning fit? Does it ...
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1answer
49 views

What are proxy reward functions?

The understanding I have is that they somehow adjust the objective to make it easier to meet, without changing the reward function. ... the observed proxy reward function is the approximate solution ...
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0answers
30 views

What is the return-to-go in reinforcement learning?

In reinforcement learning, the return is defined as some function of the rewards. For example, you can have the discounted return, where you multiply the rewards received at later time steps by ...
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1answer
53 views

What are preferences and preference functions in multi-objective reinforcement learning?

In RL (reinforcement learning) or MARL (multi-agent reinforcement learning), we have the usual tuple: (state, action, transition_probabilities, reward, next_state) ...
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0answers
51 views

What's the meaning of the Jaccard decay and the Jaccard recall? [closed]

For reference, see: Jaccard decay, Jaccard recall, and class-agnostic binary segmentation (SE:CS) I know the meaning of the Jaccard index and the formula associated to it, but when it comes to Jaccard ...
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1answer
51 views

What's the difference between estimation and approximation error?

I'm unable to find online, or understand from context - the difference between estimation error and approximation error in the context of machine learning (and, specifically, reinforcement learning). ...
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3answers
472 views

What is the definition of a heuristic function in the BayesChess paper?

I am reading BayesChess: A computer chess program based on Bayesian networks (Fernandez, Salmeron; 2008) It is a chess-playing engine using Bayesian networks. The following is mentioned about the ...
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1answer
51 views

What is the difference between parametric and non-parametric models?

A model can be classified as parametric or non-parametric. How are models classified as parametric and non-parametric models? What is the difference between the two approaches?
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1answer
8k views
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1answer
31 views

What's the threshold to call something 'machine learning'?

For example, if I use some iterative solvers to find a solution to a non-linear least squares problem, is that already considered machine learning?
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13answers
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Is AI living or non-living?

I'm a bit confused about the definition of life. Can AI systems be called 'living'? Because they can do most of the things that we can. They can even communicate with one another. They are not ...
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1answer
88 views

What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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3answers
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Is there any artificially intelligent system that really mimics human intelligence?

After having read something that Elon Musk said about artificial intelligence and how it could affect our lives, I've been reading about artificial intelligence, deep learning, etc. The recurrent ...
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1answer
58 views

What is the goal of a constraint solver?

What is the goal of a constraint solver? How are constraints propagated in a constraint satisfaction search? Any references are also appreciated.
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1answer
358 views

What are different approaches used in Machine Learning?

There seem to be so many sub-fields, so I'm interested in getting a better understanding of the approaches. I'm looking for information on a single framework per answer, in order to allow for ...
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1answer
115 views

What is Bayes' theorem?

What is Bayes' theorem? How does it relate to conditional probabilities?
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1answer
145 views

Is Deep Blue superintelligent or not?

When AI has some narrow domain, such as chess, where it can outperform the world's human masters of chess, does it make it a superintelligence or not?
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1answer
94 views

What is eager learning and lazy learning?

What is the difference between eager learning and lazy learning? How does eager learning or lazy learning help me build a neural network system? And how can I use it for any target function?
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1answer
77 views

What is Cognitive Intelligence?

Similarly to the question, What is artificial intelligence? Cognitive Intelligence, as well as being a part of Artificial Intelligence, is an area that mainly covers the technology and tools that ...
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7answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
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1answer
69 views

What is the difference between artificial neural network (ANN) and deep learning?

I have read many mixed definitions around these two terms. For example, is it right to say deep learning is any ANN with more than two hidden layers? What are formal definitions for these two?
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2answers
400 views

What is the Turing test?

I'm looking for intuition in simple words but also some simple insights (I don't know if the latter is possible). Can anybody shed some light on the Turing test?
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1answer
433 views

What is the meaning of a 2D stride?

I know what meaning stride has when it is just an integer number (by which step you should apply a filter to the image). But about (1, 1) or even more dimensional ...
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1answer
6k views

What is the credit assignment problem?

In reinforcement learning (RL), the credit assignment problem (CAP) seems to be an important problem. What is the CAP? Why is it relevant to RL?
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2answers
148 views

What are the main algorithms used in computer vision?

Nowadays, CV has really achieved great performance in many different areas. However, it is not clear what a CV algorithm is. What are some examples of CV algorithms that are commonly used nowadays and ...
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3answers
884 views

What is Reinforcement Learning?

What is the cleanest, easiest way to explain someone who is a non-STEM work colleague the concept of Reinforcement Learning? What are the main ideas behind Reinforcement Learning?
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1answer
81 views

What is a convolutional neural network?

Given that this question has not yet been asked on this site, although similar questions have already been asked in the past (e.g. here or here), what is essentially a convolutional neural network (...
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1answer
158 views

How do we express $q_\pi(s,a)$ as a function of $p(s',r|s,a)$ and $v_\pi(s)$?

The task (exercise 3.13 in the RL book by Sutton and Barto) is to express $q_\pi(s,a)$ as a function of $p(s',r|s,a)$ and $v_\pi(s)$. $q_\pi(s,a)$ is the action-value function, that states how good ...
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1answer
183 views

How do I recognise a bandit problem?

I'm having difficulty understanding the distinction between a bandit problem and a non-bandit problem. An example of the bandit problem is an agent playing $n$ slot machines with the goal of ...
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2answers
2k views

What is a recurrent neural network?

Surprisingly, this wasn't asked before - at least I didn't find anything besides some vaguely related questions. So, what is a recurrent neural network, and what are their advantages over regular (or ...
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1answer
45 views

Can the agent wait until the end of the episode to determine the reward in SARSA?

From Sutton and Barto's book Reinforcement Learning (Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning series) (p. 99), the following definition for first-visit MC prediction, for estimating $V \sim V_\pi$ is ...
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5answers
498 views

What is the most general definition of “intelligence”?

When we talk about artificial intelligence, human intelligence or any other form of intelligence, what do we mean by the term intelligence in a general sense? What would you call intelligent and what ...
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2answers
186 views

Why is the policy not a part of the MDP definition?

I'm reading an article on reinforcement learning, and I don't understand why the agent's policy $\pi$ is not part of definition of Markov Decision process(MDP): Bu, Lucian, Robert Babu, and Bart De ...
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1answer
118 views

Which AGI systems have already been implemented and tested?

I wish to compile a (somewhat) comprehensive list of AGI systems that have actually been created and tested (to whatever degrees of success) instead of those that simply advertise they are going to '...
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1answer
14k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
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3answers
257 views

What is a support vector machine?

What is a support vector machine (SVM)? Is an SVM a kind of a neural network, meaning it has nodes and weights, etc.? What is it best used for? Where I can find information about these?
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1answer
88 views

Is my understanding of how AI works correct?

In my discussion over my question on Math SE, I explained to a user, how I think AI works, I wrote that with the sigmoid(logistic) function, features of a data set are identified, many such iterations ...
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1answer
71 views

In what RL algorithm category is MiniMax?

Q-learning is a temporal-difference method and Monte Carlo tree search is a Monte Carlo method. In what category is MiniMax?
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1answer
114 views

When exactly is a model considered over-parameterized?

When exactly is a model considered over-parameterized? There are some recent researches in Deep Learning about the role of over-parameterization toward generalization, so it would be nice if I can ...
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1answer
76 views

Would you categorize policy iteration as an actor-critic reinforcement learning approach?

One way of understanding the difference between value function approaches, policy approaches and actor-critic approaches in reinforcement learning is the following: A critic explicitly models a value ...
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1answer
44 views

Is the test time the phase when the model's accuracy is calculated with test data set?

When papers talk about the "test time", does this mean the phase when the model is passed with new data instances to derive the accuracy of the test data set? Or is "test time" the phase when the ...
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3answers
355 views

What is the difference between Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Recognition?

I found Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Recognition as two different categories on paperswithcode.com. Should both be the same as my understanding? If not what's the difference?
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2answers
11k views

What are bottleneck features?

In the blog post Building powerful image classification models using very little data, bottleneck features are mentioned. What are the bottleneck features? Do they change with the architecture that is ...
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1answer
299 views

What is a graph neural network?

What is a graph neural network (GNN)? How is a GNN different from a NN? How exactly is a GNN related to graphs? What are the components of a GNN? What are the inputs and outputs of GNNs? How can ...
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6answers
49k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
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1answer
42 views

What is generalized policy iteration?

I am reading Sutton and Barto's material now. I know value iteration, which is an iterative algorithm taking the maximum value of adjacent states, and policy iteration. But what is generalized policy ...
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5answers
187 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
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1answer
7k views

How does the uniform-cost search algorithm work?

What is the uniform-cost search (UCS) algorithm? How does it work? I would appreciate seeing a graphical execution of the algorithm. How does the frontier evolve in the case of UCS?
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5answers
512 views

What is “backprop”?

What does "backprop" mean? Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?
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3answers
233 views