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For asking about an aspect of the history of AI.

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History of Neural Networks and Deep Learning

I'm interested in learning about the history of neural networks and deep learning. I've been reading about the field and am familiar with many of the developments since the 1950s. Is there a textbook,...
neuralode's user avatar
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Support Vector Machine used in Image Classification

I am looking for a reference preferably a paper that details how Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and OpenCV were used to perform image classification before Convultional Neural Networks (CNNs). I am ...
Jose M Serra's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
281 views

DQN arXiv 10-year anniversary: What are the outstanding problems being actively researched in deep Q-learning since 2019?

Background As of today (12-19-2023), the arXiv submission of the original deep Q-learning approach to achieve superhuman performance on ATARI games has turned a decade old. The original approach, ...
DeepQZero's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
850 views

Historical source for a saying about moving the goalposts regarding AI

I am looking for the name/source for the statement regarding "moving the goalposts" w.r.t. AI. I don't remember the statement exactly, but it was something in the sense that we think of AI ...
Igor F.'s user avatar
  • 201
1 vote
2 answers
120 views

Knowledge graph progress from 2012 to 2022?

I watched this lecture by professor Xin Wang, and a picture in the beginning interested me: The confusing thing is that this lecture was delivered on Sep. 19, 2022, but it seems from the diagram ...
Lerner Zhang's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
80 views

What is the most accurate way of building a Perceptron using only NumPy?

For context, I am trying to write a bunch of neural network programs using no other packages besides NumPy for educational purposes. I am trying to make them as simple as possible, i.e. removing the ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
118 views

Which computer scientists have received the Turing Award specifically for their contributions to Artificial Intelligence?

Many people have heard of Hinton, Bengio, and LeCun in recent years, given the popularity of deep learning and neural networks, and their contributions to this subfield of Artificial Intelligence. For ...
nbro's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
319 views

Why are today's neural networks not modeled with probability theory?

In the paper The Perceptron: A probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain, Rosenblatt used the probability theory to model his perceptron. My professor told me that ...
Collo's user avatar
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0 answers
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What are the defining moments that make community realise the potential of deep learning?

Consider the following paragraph from the chapter named pre-trained models from the textbook titled Deep Learning with PyTorch by Eli Stevens et al. The AlexNet architecture won the 2012 ILSVRC by a ...
hanugm's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
549 views

Did the unsolved XOR problem in "Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry" 1969 book really cause the winter of the AI in 1974?

Winter of AI definition: periods of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research, due to unmet expectations after a period of hype. There have been at least two major AI winters ...
rubengavidia0x's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
244 views

Is image generation not existent before generative adversarial networks?

Although the GAN is widely used due to its capability, there were generative models before the GAN which are based on probabilistic graphical models such as Bayesian networks, Markov networks, etc. It ...
hanugm's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
164 views

Why is noise vector represented by letter $z$? [closed]

Most of the notations in Artificial Intelligence are borrowed from the mathematics. $x$ stands for input (vector), $y$ stands for output (vector) etc., and the list is long. But, I am not sure whether ...
hanugm's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
278 views

Why was the VC dimension not defined for all configurations of $d$ points?

Let's start with a typical definition of the VC dimension (as described in this book) Definition $3.10$ (VC-dimension) The $V C$ -dimension of a hypothesis set $\mathcal{H}$ is the size of the ...
nbro's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
164 views

Origins of the name of convolutional neural networks

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) contain convolutional layers. In modern deep learning libraries such as Tensorflow and PyTorch, convolutional layers are implemented by using the cross-correlation ...
mikkola's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
146 views

Did the Hutter Prize help research in artificial intelligence in any way?

Wikipedia states: The Hutter Prize is a cash prize funded by Marcus Hutter which rewards data compression improvements on a specific 1 GB English text file. The goal of the Hutter Prize is to ...
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
364 views

Why did the developement of neural networks stop between 50s and 80s?

In a video lecture on the development of neural networks and the history of deep learning (you can start from minute 13), the lecturer (Yann LeCunn) said that the development of neural networks ...
Daviiid's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
354 views

Who first coined the term "deep learning"?

AFAIK, deep learning became popular in 2012 with the victory of ImageNet Competition - Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2012 where winners of this contest actually used deep learning ...
Pluviophile's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is Cognitive Intelligence?

Similarly to the question, What is artificial intelligence? Cognitive Intelligence, as well as being a part of Artificial Intelligence, is an area that mainly covers the technology and tools that ...
Pluviophile's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
3k views

Which paper introduced the term "softmax"?

Nowadays, the softmax function is widely used in deep learning and, specifically, classification with neural networks. However, the origins of this term and function are almost never mentioned ...
nbro's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Who first coined the term "artificial general intelligence"?

Similarly to the question Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?, who first coined the term "artificial general intelligence"?
nbro's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is it called back-propagation?

While looking at the mathematics of the back-propagation algorithm for a multi-layer perceptron, I noticed that in order to find the partial derivative of the cost function with respect to a weight (...
Skawang's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
612 views

Which work originally introduced gradient clipping?

The Deep Learning book mentions that it's been used for years but the oldest sources it mentions are from 2012: A simple type of solution has been in use by practitioners for many years: clipping ...
Jeremiah England's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
500 views

What happened after the second AI winter?

I know this is a very general question, but I'm trying to illustrate this topic to people who are not from the field, and also my understanding is very limited since I'm just a second-year physics ...
Jan Kleinow's user avatar
14 votes
3 answers
223 views

Is there a way to understand neural networks without using the concept of brain?

Is there a way to understand, for instance, a multi-layered perceptron without hand-waving about them being similar to brains, etc? For example, it is obvious that what a perceptron does is ...
Evgeniy's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
97 views

Why is awareness of itself such a point when speaking about AI?

Why is awareness of itself such a point when speaking about AI? Does it always mean a starting point for apocalyptic nightmares to occur when such a level is reached or is it just a classical example ...
mico's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
594 views

Are simple animal snares and traps a form of automation? Of computation?

I'm trying to understand the relationship of humans and automation, historically and culturally. I ask because the waterclock is generally considered the earliest form of automation, but snares and ...
DukeZhou's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Was the corruption of Microsoft's "Tay" chatbot an example of catastrophic forgetting?

Tay was a chatbot, who learned from Twitter users. Microsoft's AI fam from the internet that's got zero chill. The more you talk the smarter Tay gets. — Twitter tagline. Microsoft trained the AI ...
wizzwizz4's user avatar
  • 225
15 votes
4 answers
6k views

Why did machine learning only become viable after Nvidia's chips were available?

I listened to a talk by a panel consisting of two influential Chinese scientists: Wang Gang and Yu Kai and others. When being asked about the biggest bottleneck of the development of artificial ...
Lerner Zhang's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
177 views

Why do we use the word "kernel" in the expression "Gaussian kernel"?

I've heard the expression "Gaussian kernel" in several contexts (e.g. in the kernel trick used in SVM). A Gaussian kernel usually refers to a Gaussian function (that is, a function similar to the ...
nbro's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
232 views

Would the people of the 19th Century call our conventional software today artificial intelligence? [closed]

It is possible that the view of what is impressive enough in computer behavior to be called intelligence changes with each decade as we adjust to what capabilities are made available in products and ...
Douglas Daseeco's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
224 views

Was Pierce way off the mark? [closed]

Funding artificial intelligence is real stupidity. -- John R. Pierce Was this computer pioneer way off the mark? – or was there an important sub-text there? Pierce was an expert on machine ...
EulerSpoiler's user avatar
25 votes
8 answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
Rana Wasif's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
400 views

What is neoluddism?

It is well known from the history of technology that the invention of new things was always problematic. In the 15th century for example, in which Gutenberg has invented the first printing press, the ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
118 views

What noteworthy contributions have Chinese AI researchers made in the field of artificial intelligence?

In recent years, China has made rapid progress in manufacturing and scientific research, as evidenced by their successful teleportation of a single quantum entangled photon to a satellite in orbit. My ...
Seth Simba's user avatar
  • 1,186
3 votes
1 answer
125 views

Is the Turing Test a blinded experiment?

Did Alan Turing expect the AIs to be aware they were being Turing tested while the game was being played? I think it's slightly harder to look like a duck while pretending to be a duck than when you ...
bruno's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
191 views

Is the traditional meaning of "strong AI" outmoded?

Traditionally, "strong AI" refers to Artificial General Intelligence, the human mind understood as an algorithm (Searle, Chinese Room) and Artificial Consciousness. But recent advances in Artificial ...
DukeZhou's user avatar
  • 6,237
4 votes
5 answers
768 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
Arthur Tarasov's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
5k views

Is Lisp still worth learning today in the particular context of Machine learning? [closed]

Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church's lambda calculus. It quickly became the favored programming ...
Maheshwar Ligade's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
446 views

What caused the resurgence of AI since the early 2000s?

I took a few AI courses in college (1999-2003), and we used the first edition of AI: A Modern Approach. We covered a lot of topics and programming, including classical AI, neural networks, and ...
Brian's user avatar
  • 131
7 votes
1 answer
278 views

What are the most recent and influential breakthroughs in NLP?

I'm looking at the history of NLP, starting in the 1950s, with the Georgetown–IBM experiment. What are examples of the most recent (e.g. in the last 5-10 years) and influential breakthroughs in ...
csheroe's user avatar
  • 71
9 votes
4 answers
771 views

Are AI winters inevitable?

According to Wikipedia (citations omitted): In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research. The term was ...
Left SE On 10_6_19's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
554 views

How do we know that now artificial intelligence will really take off?

A lot of people are claiming that we are at an inflection point, and machine learning/artificial intelligence will take off. This is in spite of the fact that for a long machine learning has stagnated....
alpha_989's user avatar
  • 139
3 votes
1 answer
159 views

Neural Networks unmatched on MNIST?

I remember reading or hearing a claim that at any point in time since the publication of the MNIST dataset, it has never happened that a method not based on neural networks was the best given the ...
liori's user avatar
  • 513
8 votes
3 answers
356 views

Is Artificial Intelligence restricted to electrical based technology?

According to Wikipedia: AI is intelligence exhibited by machines. I have been wondering if with the recent biological advancements, is there already a non-electrical-based "machine" that is ...
CPHPython's user avatar
  • 181
4 votes
4 answers
363 views

Why did "Artificial Intelligence" stay intact as a coherent, unified field of study?

Artificial Intelligence is a rather pernicious label to attach to a very mixed bunch of activities, and one could argue that the sooner we forget it the better. It would be disastrous to conclude that ...
Left SE On 10_6_19's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
503 views

Who was the first person to recognize the distinction between human-like general intelligence and domain-specific intelligence?

In the 1950s, there were widely-held beliefs that "Artificial Intelligence" will quickly become both self-conscious and smart-enough to win chess with humans. Various people suggested time frames of e....
liori's user avatar
  • 513
6 votes
1 answer
537 views

Why was ELIZA able to induce "delusional thinking"?

From Eliza to A.L.I.C.E.: Weizenbaum tells us that he was shocked by the experience of releasing ELIZA (also known as "Doctor") to the nontechnical staff at the MIT AI Lab. Secretaries and ...
Left SE On 10_6_19's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
314 views

Have any chatbots fooled the judges and won the Loebner Prize Gold medal yet?

I've read about The Loebner Prize for AI, which pledged a Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's. So I was wondering ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
8 votes
3 answers
4k views

Is there any board game where a human can still beat an AI?

Significant AI vs human board game matches include: chess: Deep Blue vs Kasparov in 1996, go: DeepMind AlphaGo vs Lee Sedol in 2016, which demonstrated that AI challenged and defeated professional ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
27 votes
2 answers
12k views

Is Prolog still used in AI?

According to Wikipedia, Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Is it still used for AI? This is based off of ...
Mithical's user avatar
  • 2,905