Questions tagged [history]

For asking about an aspect of the history of AI.

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23
votes
7answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
20
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3answers
1k views

Is Lisp still being used to tackle AI problems?

I know that language of Lisp was used early on when working on artificial intelligence problems. Is it still being used today for significant work? If not, is there a new language that has taken its ...
19
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1answer
838 views

Has the Lovelace Test 2.0 been successfully used in an academic setting?

In October 2014, Dr. Mark Riedl published an approach to testing AI intelligence, called the "Lovelace Test 2.0", after being inspired by the original Lovelace Test (published in 2001). Mark believed ...
18
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2answers
7k views

Is Prolog still used in AI?

According to Wikipedia, Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Is it still used for AI? This is based off of ...
12
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2answers
5k views

Why did ML only become viable after Nvidia's chips were available?

I listened to a talk by panel consisted of two influential Chinese scientists: Wang Gang and Yu Kai and others. When being asked about the biggest bottleneck of the development of artificial ...
11
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3answers
149 views

Is there a way to understand neural networks without using the concept of brain?

Is there a way to understand, for instance, a multi-layered perceptron without hand-waving about them being similar to brains etc? For example: it is obvious that what a perceptron does is ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
11
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2answers
438 views

Are there any AI that have passed the MIST test so far?

MIST is a quantiative test of humanness, consisting of ~80k propositions such as: Is Earth a planet? Is the sun bigger than my foot? Do people sometimes lie? etc. Have any AI attempted and passed ...
10
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1answer
4k views

When did Artificial Intelligence research first start?

When did research into Artificial Intelligence first begin? Was it called Artificial Intelligence then or was there another name?
10
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3answers
421 views

Who was the first person to recognize the distinction between human-like general intelligence and domain-specific intelligence?

In the 1950s, there were widely-held beliefs that "Artificial Intelligence" will quickly become both self-conscious and smart-enough to win chess with humans. Various people suggested time frames of e....
9
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4answers
654 views

Are AI winters inevitable?

According to Wikipedia (citations omitted): In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research. The term was ...
8
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3answers
321 views

Is Artificial Intelligence restricted to electrical based technology?

According to Wikipedia: AI is intelligence exhibited by machines. I have been wondering if with the recent biological advancements, is there already a non-electrical-based "machine" that is ...
8
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2answers
4k views

Is Lisp still worth learning today in the particular context of Machine learning? [closed]

Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church's lambda calculus. It quickly became the favored programming ...
8
votes
1answer
171 views

What are the most recent and influential breakthroughs in NLP?

I'm looking at the history of NLP, starting in the 1950s, with the Georgetown–IBM experiment. What are examples of the most recent (e.g. in the last 5-10 years) and influential breakthroughs in ...
7
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3answers
2k views

Is there any board game where a human can still beat an AI?

Significant AI vs human board game matches include: chess: Deep Blue vs Kasparov in 1996, Go: DeepMind AlphaGo vs Lee Sedol in 2016, which demonstrated that AI challenged and defeated professional ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Was the corruption of Microsoft's “Tay” chatbot an example of catastrophic forgetting?

Tay was a chatbot, who learned from Twitter users. Microsoft's AI fam from the internet that's got zero chill. The more you talk the smarter Tay gets. — Twitter tagline. Microsoft trained the AI ...
7
votes
2answers
192 views

Would the people of the 19th Century call our conventional software today artificial intelligence?

It is possible that the view of what is impressive enough in computer behavior to be called intelligence changes with each decade as we adjust to what capabilities are made available in products and ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Did Minsky and Papert know that multi-layer perceptrons could solve XOR?

In their famous book entitled Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry, Minsky and Papert show that a perceptron can't solve the XOR problem. This contributed to the first AI winter, ...
6
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2answers
163 views

What was the first machine that was able to carry on a conversation?

What was the first AI that was able to carry on a conversation, with real responses, such as in the famous 'I am not a robot. I am a unicorn' case? A 'real response' constitutes a sort-of ...
5
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6answers
492 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
5
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1answer
138 views

Was Pierce way off the mark?

“Funding artificial intelligence is real stupidity.” -- John R. Pierce Was this computer pioneer way off the mark? – or was there important sub-text there? Pierce was an expert for machine ...
5
votes
1answer
374 views

Why was ELIZA able to induce “delusional thinking”?

From Eliza to A.L.I.C.E.: Weizenbaum tells us that he was shocked by the experience of releasing ELIZA (also known as "Doctor") to the nontechnical staff at the MIT AI Lab. Secretaries and ...
5
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3answers
183 views

Are simple animal snares and traps a form of automation? Of computation?

I'm trying to understand the relationship of humans and automation, historically and culturally. I ask because the waterclock is generally considered the earliest form of automation, but snares and ...
5
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0answers
88 views

Old video games intelligence

Around 2000, existed popular fights videogames. There, if you made the same kick movement for several running times, the CPU normally defended and caught your strategy. This is the case in Tekken 3 ie....
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What were the first areas of research and what were some early successes?

What were the first areas of research into Artificial Intelligence and what were some early successes? More recently we've had: Beating a human at the game of chess Convincing a human that a person ...
4
votes
1answer
121 views

What happened after the second AI winter?

I know this is a very general question, but I'm trying to illustrate this topic to people who are not from the field, and also my understanding is very limited since I'm just a second-year physics ...
3
votes
4answers
320 views

Why did “Artificial Intelligence” stay intact as a coherent, unified field of study?

Artificial Intelligence is a rather pernicious label to attach to a very mixed bunch of activities, and one could argue that the sooner we forget it the better. It would be disastrous to conclude that ...
3
votes
1answer
241 views

What is neoluddism?

It is well known from the history of technology that the invention of new things was always problematic. In the 15th century for example, in which Gutenberg has invented the first printing press, the ...
3
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3answers
510 views

How do we know that now artificial intelligence will really take off?

A lot of people are claiming that we are at an inflection point, and machine learning/artificial intelligence will take off. This is in spite of the fact that for a long machine learning has stagnated....
3
votes
1answer
139 views

Neural Networks unmatched on MNIST?

I remember reading or hearing a claim that at any point in time since the publication of the MNIST dataset, it has never happened that a method not based on neural networks was the best given the ...
3
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0answers
43 views

How can Artificial Intelligence paraphrasing be utilized as a replacement for psychologizing?

Psychologizing is a dialogue technique which is rephrasing an existing domain into terms of psychology. For example, a person is eating to much and the doctor defines the behavior as a compensation of ...
3
votes
3answers
111 views

What impact will artificial intelligence have on human society?

What impact will artificial intelligence have on human society?
2
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2answers
99 views

Why is it called back-propagation?

While looking at the mathematics of the back-propagation algorithm for a multi-layer perceptron, I noticed that in order to find the partial derivative of the cost function with respect to a weight (...
2
votes
1answer
254 views

Have any chatbots fooled the judges and won the Loebner Prize Gold medal yet?

I've read about The Loebner Prize for AI, which pledged a Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's. So I was wondering ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Which paper introduced the term “softmax”?

Nowadays, the softmax function is widely used in deep learning and, specifically, classification with neural networks. However, the origins of this term and function are almost never mentioned ...
2
votes
1answer
276 views

What caused the resurgence of AI since the early 2000s?

I took a few AI courses in college (1999-2003), and we used the first edition of AI: A Modern Approach. We covered a lot of topics and programming, including classical AI, neural networks, and ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Which work originally introduced gradient clipping?

The Deep Learning book mentions that it's been used for years but the oldest sources it mentions are from 2012: A simple type of solution has been in use by practitioners for many years: clipping ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Chess Engine for low clock cycle CPU

I'm looking for a simple chess algorithm that works well on a ~132MHz CPU. I know that MiniMax would take too long to go deep in order to find good moves. Is Monte Carlo Tree Search working well on ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Are there any graphs that present the status and progress of the AI field?

Are there any graphs (of some sort) that would clearly present the status of AI in one way or another (meaning in a verifiably measurable way) and show where AI has been progressing and what the ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Is the Turing Test a blinded experiment?

Did Alan Turing expect the AIs to be aware they were being Turing tested while the game was being played? I think it's slightly harder to look like a duck while pretending to be a duck than when you ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Is the traditional meaning of “strong AI” outmoded?

Traditionally, "strong AI" refers to Artificial General Intelligence, the human mind understood as an algorithm (Searle, Chinese Room) and Artificial Consciousness. But recent advances in Artificial ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Why is awareness of itself such a point when speaking about AI?

Why is awareness of itself such a point when speaking about AI? Does it always mean a starting point for apocalyptic nightmares to occur when such a level is reached or is it just a classical example ...
1
vote
2answers
124 views

Who first coined the term “artificial general intelligence”?

Similarly to the question Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?, who first coined the term "artificial general intelligence"?
1
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2answers
68 views

What are some examples of classical AI methods?

All of the attention in the AI field over the past few years has been toward statistical AI, now that Machine Learning has been validated on hard problems. However, I want to learn more about ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Who first coined the term “deep learning”?

AFAIK, deep learning became popular in 2012 with the victory of ImageNet Competition - Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2012 where winners of this contest actually used deep learning ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Number of weights in historical to cutting edge deployment of deep networks [closed]

In cutting edge deployment of deep networks for different architectures (such as $CNN$, $QRNN$ etc) what is the historical trend of current limits of trainability possible computationally? By this I ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Why do we use the word “kernel” in the expression “Gaussian kernel”?

I've heard the expression "Gaussian kernel" in several contexts (e.g. in the kernel trick used in SVM). A Gaussian kernel usually refers to a Gaussian function (that is, a function similar to the ...
0
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1answer
63 views

What is Cognitive Intelligence?

Similarly to the question, What is artificial intelligence? Cognitive Intelligence, as well as being a part of Artificial Intelligence, is an area that mainly covers the technology and tools that ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

What is the difference between a mechanical robot and the electronic version?

In the Cabaret Mechanical Theatre [1] some examples for cam disc driven machines are given. What the visitor can expect are rotating ballet dancers and blacksmith androids which are made out of wood. ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

What noteworthy contributions have Chinese AI researchers made in the field of artificial intelligence?

In recent years, China has made rapid progress in manufacturing and scientific research as evidenced by their successful teleportation of a single quantum entangled photon to a satellite in orbit. My ...