Questions tagged [long-short-term-memory]

For questions related to the long-short term memory (LSTM), which refers to a recurrent neural network architecture that uses LSTM units. The first LSTM unit was proposed in 1997 by Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber in the paper "Long-Short Term Memory".

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859 views

What is the relationship between the size of the hidden layer and the size of the cell state layer in an LSTM?

I was following some examples to get familiar with TensorFlow's LSTM API, but noticed that all LSTM initialization functions require only the num_units parameter, ...
4
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71 views

RNN models displays upper limit on predictions

I have trained a RNN, GRU, and LSTM on the same dataset, and looking at their respective predictions I have observed, that they all display an upper limit on the value they can predict. I have ...
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142 views

What evaluation metric are used for sequence-to-sequence prediction problems?

I am solving many sequence-to-sequence prediction problems using RNN/LSTM. What type of evaluation metrics can be used for sequence prediction problems? One metric is the mean squared error (MSE) ...
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60 views

How do the relative number of cells between neighboring stacked LSTM layers affect the network's behavior?

It seems that stacking LSTM layers can be beneficial for some problem settings in order to learn higher levels of abstraction of temporal relationships in the data. There is already some discussion on ...
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0answers
41 views

How does backpropagation work in LSTMs?

After reading a lot of articles (for instance, this one Understanding LSTM Networks), I know that the long short-term memory (LSTM) is an artificial recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture used in ...
3
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33 views

Could zero-padding affect learning in a negative way?

I implemented an LSTM with Keras to perform word ordering task (given a syntactically unordered sentence, the goal is to label ...
3
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24 views

Is there any way of generating fixed-length sequences with RNNs?

Is there any way of generating fixed-length sequences with RNNs? I want to tell my character level RNN to generate a name of length 3, 4, 5 and so on. I haven't found anything online like this, but my ...
3
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35 views

How to predict an event (or action) based on a window of time-series measurements?

I have an input vector $X$, which contains a series of measurements within a period, e.g. 100 measurements in 1 sec. The goal is to predict an event, let's say, moving forward, backward or static. I ...
3
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1answer
99 views

Why does the error of my LSTM not decrease after 10 epochs?

Despite the problem being very simple, I was wondering why an LSTM network was not able to converge to a decent solution. ...
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0answers
53 views

Why don't the neural networks inside LSTM cells contain hidden layers?

I watched a video explaining how LSTM cells have very rudimentary feed-forward neural networks, basically a 2 layer input-output with no hidden layers. Why don't LSTM cells have more complex neural ...
3
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39 views

How can I do hyperparameter optimization for a CNN-LSTM neural network?

I have built a CNN-LSTM neural network with 2 inputs and 2 outputs in Keras. I trained the network with model.fit_generator() (and not ...
3
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0answers
85 views

Why do regression LSTMs learn high to low inputs significantly better than low to high?

The specific problem I have is learning the relation $x^2$. I have an array of 0 through 19 (input values) and a target array of 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 and so on all the way up to $19^2$=361. I have ...
3
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1answer
68 views

What sort of Neural Network is best suited to predicting a future purchase?

I have previously implemented a Neural Network with Back-Propagation that was able to learn Tic-tac-toe and could go pretty well at Connect-4. Now I'm trying to do a NN that can make a prediction. ...
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151 views

What can be considered a deep recurrent neural network?

In the paper Deep Recurrent Q-Learning for Partially Observable MDPs, the DRQN is described as DQN with the first post-convolutional fully-connected layer replaced by a recurrent LSTM. I have DQN ...
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153 views

Training RNN's on text: Can you use an ASCII encoding just as well as a one-hot character encoding?

I've mostly seen (e.g. in The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Recurrent Neural Networks) that when training RNN on text for something like language modeling, the text is usually featurized character-by-...
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35 views

How to understand the matrices used in the Attention layer?

Attention-scoring mechanism seems to be a commonly-used component in various seq2seq models, and I was reading about the original "Location-based Attention" in Bahadanau well-known paper at https://...
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20 views

Visualisation for Features to Predict Timeseries Data

I have a course assignment to use an LSTM to predict the movement directions of stock prices. One of the things I am asked to do is provide a visualization to compare the predictive powers of a set of ...
2
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23 views

How to feed key-value features (aggregated data) to LSTM?

I have the following time-series aggregated input for an LSTM-based model: ...
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0answers
33 views

Why Pixel RNN (Row LSTM) can capture triangular contexts?

I'm reading the paper Pixel Recurrent Neural Network. I have a question about Row LSTM. Why Row LSTM can capture triangular contexts? In this paper, the kernel of the one-dimensional convolution ...
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69 views

What is the time complexity of the forward pass and back-propagation of the sequence-to-sequence model with and without attention?

I keep looking through the literature, but can't seem to find any information regarding the time complexity of the forward pass and back-propagation of the sequence-to-sequence RNN encoder-decoder ...
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66 views

How to implement a LSTM for multilabel classification problem?

I would like to develop an LSTM because I have a variable input matrix. I am zero-padding to a specific length of 800. However, I am not sure of how to classify a certain situation when each input ...
2
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30 views

Can the cross-entropy loss be used for a NLP task with LSTM?

I am trying to build an LSTM model to generate Shakspeare-like poems. I have training set $\{s_1,s_2, \dots,s_m\}$, which are sentences of Shakespeare poems, and each sentence contains words $\{w_1,...
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36 views

How do I make my LSTM model more sensitive to changes in the sequence?

I have a many to one LSTM model for multiclass classification. For reference, this is the architecture of the model ...
2
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1answer
39 views

LSTM model on different time scales

I am a newbie to machine learning. I have an LSTM modelĀ that predicts the next output n+1 time 1, params 1, output 1 time 2, params 2, output 2 time 3, params 3, output 3 . . time n, params n, , ...
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26 views

Did people analyze dynamics of very simple LSTMs?

I wonder if researchers tried to understand how LSTMs work by analyzing the dynamics of simple LSTM (e.g. with 2 units)? For example how the hidden state evolves depending on the properties of weight ...
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25 views

How are batch statistics computed in Recurrent Batch Normalization?

I'm implementing recurrent BN per this paper in Keras, but looking at it and those citing it, a detail remains unclear to me: how are batch statistics computed? Authors omit explicit clarification, ...
2
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1answer
25 views

How to represent integer values in sequence to sequence prediction task in encoder-decoder LSTM?

I have a large 2D grid having 30k rows and 35k columns, so a total of 30x35k grid cells. Each grid cell is represented by a unique integer number (identity of grid cell). I have several trajectories ...
2
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0answers
42 views

How does a Bidirectional RNN work?

Could it be possible to reach a similar output via feeding a unidirectional network with the original data and the data played backwards?
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0answers
23 views

How can I detect fast and slow motion in videos?

I'm trying to detect if a given video shot is fast or slow motion. Basically, I need to calculate a "video motion" score in a given video sequence, meaning how fast or slow motion the video is. For ...
2
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0answers
74 views

Spike detection in time series using Artificial Neural Networks

I'm quite new in ANNs. I intend to use ANNs for predicting spike points in time series right before they happen. I've already used LSTM for another scenario, and I know that they can be used in ...
2
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0answers
76 views

Why experience reply memory in DQN instead of a RNN memory?

I was trying to implement a DQN without experience reply memory, and the agent is not learning anything at all. I know from readings that experience reply is used for stabilizing gradients. But how ...
2
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0answers
42 views

RNN: Different test results on balanced and unbalanced data

I trained a recurrent neural network (if it matters - it contains three CuDNNLSTM cells and 3 Dense layers, Dropout = 0.2). The result of data preparation is one array of ~330.000 sequences. Each ...
2
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0answers
31 views

Multi-field text input for LSTM

I'm using LSTM to categorize medium-sized pieces of text. Each item to be categorized has several free-form text fields, in addition to several categorical fields. What is the best approach to using ...
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0answers
36 views

How does a neural network output text box location data?

I'm interested in creating a convolutional neural network or LSTM to locate text in an image. I don't want to OCR the text yet, just find the text regions. Yes, I know Tesseract and other systems can ...
2
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1answer
89 views

Price difference predictions curve almost vanished

With a team, we are studying how it is possible to predict the price movement with high-frequency. Instead of predicting the price directly, we have decided to try predicting price difference as well ...
2
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0answers
102 views

Structure of a multilayered LSTM neural network?

I implemented a LSTM neural network in Pytorch. It worked but I want to know if it worked the way I guessed how it worked. Say there's a 2-layer LSTM network with 10 units in each layer. The inputs ...
2
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0answers
163 views

Generating time series for doing time-series forecasting with LSTM

I have a .db file with columns as described below. This data has been collected by a software which monitors the file usage in a filesystem or in other words generates metadata about all the files in ...
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0answers
32 views

Does it make sense to add word embeddings as additional features for LSTM model?

I have an LSTM model. This model takes as input tokens. Those tokens represent XML markups extracted from some XML files. My model is working fine. However, I want to optimize it by adding word ...
2
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0answers
158 views

Deep learning model (LSTM) with temporal and non temporal attributes

I'm working on a project to predict the usage of all the files in a filesystem in near future based on the metadata of the file system for past 6 months. I've got the following attributes about the ...
2
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0answers
101 views

Combine two embeddding inputs to increase more performance in LSTM model

The situation I encountered here is that I have two inputs(for instance, image embedding, etc.) into the first lstm of a series of lstms to predict the next word to generate sentence(from the second ...
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0answers
70 views

seq2seq vector to letters model

I'm looking to build a sequence-to-sequence model that takes in a 2048-long vector of 1s and 0s as my input and translating it to my known output of (a variable length) 1-20 long characters (ex. ...
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20 views

When past states contain useful information, does A3C perform better than TD3, given that TD3 does not use an LSTM?

I am trying to build an AI that needs to have some information about the past states as well. Therefore, LSTMs are suitable for this. Now, I want to know that for a problem/game like Breakout, where ...
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0answers
40 views

Do you have to add a dense layer onto the final layer of an LSTM?

If my understanding of an LSTM is correct then the output from each LSTM unit is the hidden state from that layer. For the final layer if I wanted to predict e.g. a scalar real number, would I want to ...
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31 views

LSTM - MAPE Loss Function gives Better Results when Data is De-Scaled before Loss Calculation

I am building an LSTM for predicting a price chart. MAPE resulted in the best loss function compared to ...
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0answers
21 views

Is the number of bidirectional LSTMs in seq2seq model equal to the maximum length of input text/characters?

I'm confused about this aspect of RNNs while trying to learn how seq2seq encoder-decoder works at https://machinelearningmastery.com/configure-encoder-decoder-model-neural-machine-translation/. It ...
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0answers
26 views

My LSTM text classification model seems not learn anything in early epochs

I am trying to use LSTM to do text classification and monitor the training process with tensorboard. But it seems that this model doesn't learn anything in early epochs. Is it normal for LSTM networks?...
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0answers
29 views

Which NLP model to use to handle long context?

I'm trying to process product data for an e-commerce platform. The goal is to understand products' size. Just to show you some examples on how messy product dimension description is: ...
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0answers
17 views

How do LSTM and GRU avoid to overcome the vanishing gradient problem?

I'm watching the video Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) | RNN LSTM | Deep Learning Tutorial | Tensorflow Tutorial | Edureka where the author says that the LSTM and GRU architecture help to reduce the ...
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1answer
54 views

Is this Keras LSTM model underfitting?

I think this model is underfitting. Is this correct? ...
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0answers
29 views

Do RNN solves the need for LSTM and/or multiple states in Deep Q-Learning?

Introduction I am trying to setup a Deep Q-Learning agent. I have looked that the papers Playing Atari with Deep Reinforcement Learning as well as Deep Recurrent Q-Learning for Partially Observable ...