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Questions tagged [machine-learning]

For questions related to machine learning (ML), which is a set of methods that can automatically detect patterns in data, and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data, or to perform other kinds of decision making under uncertainty (such as planning how to collect more data). ML is usually divided into supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning. Deep learning is a subfield of ML that uses deep artificial neural networks.

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I dont understand this way of having a stable train/test split even after updating the dataset

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samsamradas's user avatar
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0 answers
22 views

Is it possible to calculate a GRU RNN in its entirety by hand on a small dataset?

I want to see whether my code works and want to do it by hand to compare the results. How exactly does the memory cell work in the first example seen?
J_Bake's user avatar
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1 answer
77 views

Application of AI for chat-rooms to process data

I have a software that is designed for students to have chat rooms with their classmates, and I want to process the datas being exchanged in the chat-rooms using AI model. The issue is, I don't know ...
Erden E's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Impact of scaling in loss terms when loss function is a composition of multiple functions

I am training a deep learning model, the loss function of which is of the form $$ \cal{L} = \cal{L_1} + \cal{L_2} $$ where $\cal{L_1}$ and $\cal{L_2}$ are of very different orders. WLOG, let's assume ...
user185887's user avatar
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42 views

Understanding the concepts of embedding in Roberta architecture?

I'm reading the implementation file of Roberta architecture, specifically in the RobertaEmbedding class, this class has the comment: ...
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28 views

What is the Input to the agent in the paper "Model Based Reinforcement Learning for Atari", and why does the world model run at inference time?

I am currently reading the paper Model based Reinforcement Learning for Atari. However, they do not specify what exactly they use as input for the agent. I believe it to be the observation space - ...
Nick's user avatar
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0 answers
15 views

Looking for an audio classification approach

I am working on a deepfake audio classification project with a dataset consisting of only 3000 samples. I have made several attempts to address this challenge. Firstly, I extracted melspectrograms and ...
user21456801's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

What is the meaning of "energy loss" in PCA?

Recently in a slide in about PCA (Principal Component Analysis) I saw a question: "How much is the data energy loss in PCA?&...
hasanghaforian's user avatar
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1 answer
77 views

how can I interpret attention weights matrix? Are they reliable?

I've fine-tuned two different models (Bert and Roberta) on a dataset for a binary classification task and I'm comparing the sentences where the models predict wrong. I decided to use attention weights ...
Shayan's user avatar
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1 answer
74 views

Main subjects to learn Artificial Intelligence in CS [closed]

In my PhD, I will work with ML models. However, I will only use ready-made models as a tool, but I want to delve deeper into Artificial Intelligence not just to use ready-made models, but to ...
Everson Gomes's user avatar
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0 answers
16 views

What are efficient methods for classifying tremor intensity, given challenges with 3D CNN and memory issues with a pretrained VideoMAE model?

I have a training dataset of 80 videos (without augmentation). They are 15 seconds video recorded at 30fps and 240*480 dimensions. What options do I have to train a classification model? The problem ...
Ravideep Singh's user avatar
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39 views

Are K and V values reused in each decoder layer's cross-Attention in the original "Attention is all you need" paper?

I'm working with Transformers and have a question about the encoder-decoder structure. In each decoder layer's cross-attention, are the K and V pairs from the corresponding encoder layer reused for ...
Dennis Yang's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
30 views

Why does the number of parameters differ in each layer when each layer is defined the exact same way [closed]

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Mohd. Farhan Hassan's user avatar
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0 answers
16 views

Are There Scientific Papers on Methods for Robustifying LLMs and Current Challenges They Face?

I'm currently researching Large Language Models (LLMs) and am particularly interested in the recent advancements and challenges in this field. My focus is on understanding the methods being developed ...
Iman Mohammadi's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
94 views

Direct formula for calculating the optimum matrix which minimizes the perceptron error

Suppose we have a perceptron without bias and $f(x) = x$ as activation function and matrices $X,Y,W$ that input training data are columns of matrix $X$, $Y$ is targets matrix (columns are ordered with ...
hasanghaforian's user avatar
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2 answers
115 views

Why does model overfitting lead to poor generalization?

If a model overfit to the training data, why does it generalize poorly? Consider the basic problem of a noisy 2d dataset where I am fitting polynomials. A good model would be a parabola and a line ...
JobHunter69's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
64 views

If the output is 0.09, does this mean that the prediction is class 1 or 0?

I use a Keras EfficientNetB7 and transfer learning to solve a binary classification problem. I use tf.keras.layers.Dense(1, activation="sigmoid")(x) for ...
Doug's user avatar
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0 answers
34 views

Using multi-dimensional rewards to prevent intermediary reward bias

I came up with a new type of reward scheme to avoid intermediary reward bias and am unable to find any literature references to it. My questions are Is this novel? Is this useful? The approach is as ...
Maarten's user avatar
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0 answers
7 views

Design approach for image classification regarding genders

I am new to the world of AI and wanted to ask your guidance on how to design a ML model to classify genders based on images. There will be only one person in the image. The person could be kids, ...
Doug's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
34 views

How to choose the metric value when evaluating the performance of a deep learning model?

When evaluating the performance of a deep learning model (for the purpose of publishing a research work), should we choose the optimal value from the metric curve (such as the accuracy curve) or the ...
Liuji's user avatar
  • 19
0 votes
1 answer
77 views

Is global pooling necessary in image classification models? [closed]

In many image classification models, the global pooling operation is performed before the classification layer (i.e. fully connected layer) to reduce model complexity. Is the global pooling layer a ...
Liuji's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
267 views

Would a pipeline of different models be considered Ensemble Learning?

For example, if I have a problem in which I try to predict if it is a nice day for jogging from a corpus of images, I might first convert the images to text descriptions (ex. raining in forrest, ...
user3517818's user avatar
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0 answers
25 views

Could converting features into PCs, where #PCs = #features, improve model performance?

Let's say I have a dataset with some number of features (e.g., 10) and a target variable. I create 10 PCs from the dataset excluding the target variable. Then, I run a few classification algorithms (...
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Using naive bayesian vs. transformer-based architecture model for human-annotated data?

I have a reddit dataset with thousands of online posts over the economy and inflation. We have used human-annotation on 60% of posts to determine whether users blame the following entities over the ...
maldini1990's user avatar
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0 answers
102 views

What is the meaning of "dimensionality of the embeddings and hidden states"?

I was reading the GPT-2 and LSTM documents and noticed that they use the terms "dimension of embedding and hidden state". For GPT-2, the size is $768$, and for LSTM, the size is $256$. What ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
68 views

Keras functional model returning unexpected output dimensions [closed]

So, this is my model: ...
Aliquis's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
30 views

Keras accuracy does not change for multi-output module

I want to predict the penalty/punishment given for fraud cases, with inputs in the form of (damage amount(\$), if recidivism), and targets in the format of (fine(\$), jail(months), community service(...
Aliquis's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

What’s the missing number? And why? [closed]

So there is a box, In this box there are two small boxes up and down , upper box is “x” and lower box is “y” , and there are two other numbers without boxes so left one is “l” and right one is “r”. So ...
Shaveen Illukpitiya's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are the differences between seq2seq and encoder-decoder architectures?

I've read many tutorials online that use both words interchangeably. When I search and find that they are the same, why not just use one word since they have the same definition?
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
76 views

Is MSE cost for a linear regression model a convex function with one global optimum?

Here is the thing: MSE cost for a linear regression model is a convex function with one global optimum, and it can be solved efficiently using gradient descent or in closed form (SVD, normal eq. ....)...
Reza_va's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
158 views

XML Input to assist in composing muusic

First time submitter here. I'm a composer of (for want of a better term) contemporary classical music - and I would like to use AI to improve my productivity. The specific issue I'm dealing with is ...
E Heilner's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
88 views

Which type of Machine Learning is used in robots? [closed]

Which type of Machine Learning is used in robots? Is it supervised learning or unsupervised learning or Reinforcement learning? Especially the robots that were sent in space?
ATJ's user avatar
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0 answers
74 views

Bellman equation for MRP

Bellman equation for MRP is: And it can be written as or the inverse matrix method, when the transition matrix is known. My question is: how the left $v$ equals to the right $v$ in the second ...
Goldhand's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Same prediction result with little probabilities change

I built a job prediction system leveraging data scrapped from LinkedIn with Random Forest and compared it to XGBoost. XGBoost was used due to its high accuracy after training. When I made a prediction,...
ezaryf's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
182 views

Bellman equation and inverse matrix method

My problem: why the last formula do not contain information about time $t$? So if $s^{\prime}=s$, do we have $v_{\pi}(s) = v_{\pi}(s^{\prime})$? But this is not right I guess? If I am right, that they ...
Goldhand's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
543 views

Which epoch is the best for me to choose?

I have trained my deep learning model. I also saved the validation loss to a file and plotted on a graph I have $2$ questions for this: Does the validation loss look normal? Is there any issue with ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
122 views

What is a "multinomial model" in machine learning?

What is the mathematical definition of "multinomial model" in machine learning? I will be happy for a good definition plus an example.
DSPinfinity's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

How to decide on how to define the output function for a neural network?

What I want my simple ML model to do is for a certain case file, to take the type of crime and the amount of damage(converted into dollars), and to make a judgment (in dollars incorporating price for ...
Aliquis's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
90 views

Prefix tuning in LLM uses learnable vectors to fine tune the model

I would like to implement a new architecture for Transformer. Below description is my thought. Prefix tuning in LLM uses learnable vectors to fine tune the model. Is there a way to use the output ...
jackson's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Could an analysis of GPT4's WAIS score be published?

Similar to this: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/i-gave-chatgpt-an-iq-test-heres-what-i-discovered/ But more detailed and in depth (subtest breakdown, including image analysis, etc.), WAIS-...
BigMistake's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Do GANs have constant running time?

After the model is trained, you just need to input random noise and the generator will output an image, does this mean GANs have constant running time ? I'm asking about both naïve GAN and variants of ...
user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
739 views

Is it possible that Precision and Recall increase together?

Usually, it is said in ML that there is a trade-off between Precision and Recall. I wonder if it is possible that Precision and Recall can increase together?
DSPinfinity's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
315 views

is there a mathematical explanation of precision and recall tradeoff?

Is there a mathematical explanation of precision and recall tradeoff? Ie, is it possible mathematically to see that as you increase one, the other decreases? $\text{Precision}=\frac{TP}{P^*}=\frac{TP}{...
DSPinfinity's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
169 views

Question about the Conditioning Augmentation technique?

In the paper StackGAN: Text to Photo-realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks, the goal is to convert text descriptions into images. The text encoder encodes the ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
72 views

What kind of ML/AI approach might work well for "edge" detection in a function?

I have a function that looks something like this (in blue): I'm curious to hear what kind of ML/AI algorithm might be useful to detect the approximate x0 value at which the function y(x) ...
Tomislav Nakic-Alfirevic's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
172 views

How to detect negative (absence of) an object?

I want to detect the people that are NOT wearing PPE vests using a pre-trained object detection model like YOLO or Grounding Dino. The models are able to detect people and vests separately, but I am ...
Krithik Roshan's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
1k views

What is a pipeline in machine learning?

I have heard the term "pipeline" used in many different contexts. Now I'm trying to bring some clarity to the terminology: What exactly is a "pipeline" in machine learning?
user946822's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
145 views

how to determine the number of units for dense layer for transfer learning?

I'm using MobileNetV2 for classification, and I want to add dense layers(i remove the last layer of the MobileNetV2 model). How do I choose the number of units for the dense layer after obtaining the ...
Cy Rine's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

In k-NN, how does the condition $k(N)/N \to 0$ ensure that all the k nearest neighbors are close to a given test point $\mathbf{x}$?

Consider the k-NN algorithm and let $k(N)$ be the choice of k as a function of N (data points). For $N \to \infty$, if $k(N) \to \infty$ and $k(N)/N \to 0$, then k-NN converges to optimal classifier. ...
DSPinfinity's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Can't get a correct accuracy on tabular data using deep learning

This is my first message here, and I would like to seek some assistance ! I have a technical test for a job that I really want, and I have 10 days to complete it. I've attempted to work on it, but I'm ...
Enzo Durand's user avatar

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