# Questions tagged [math]

For questions about mathematics related to artificial intelligence.

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### Is the derivative of the loss wrt a single scalar parameter proportional to the loss?

I am wondering about the correlation between the loss and the derivative of the loss wrt a single scalar parameter, with the same sample. That means: considering a machine learning model with ...
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### How do I decide which norm to use for placing a constraint on my adversarial perturbation?

I am performing an adversarial machine learning attack on a neural network for network traffic classification. For adding adversarial perturbations in features such as packet interarrival times and ...
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### What are the differences between stability and convergence in reinforcement learning?

The terms are mentioned in the paper: “An Emphatic Approach to the Problem of off-Policy Temporal-Difference Learning.” (Sutton, Mahmood, White; 2016) and more, of course. In which paper, they ...
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### Is it still called linear separation with a layer of more than 1 neuron

A single neuron will be able to do linear separation. For example, XOR simulator network: ...
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### How can I determine the mathematical relation between the input and output variables?

I would like to take in some input values for $n$ variables, say $R$, $B$, and $G$. Let $Y$ denote the response variable of these $n$ inputs (in this example, we have $3$ inputs). Other than these, I ...
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### How can I derive the rotation matrix from the axis-angle rotation vector?

Given an axis-angle rotation vector $\Theta = (2,2,0)$, after finding the unit vector $k=(1/\sqrt{2}, 1/\sqrt{2}, 0)$ and angle $\theta = 2\sqrt{2}$ representing the same rotation, I need to derive ...
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### Given an axis-angle rotation vector, how can I find the unit rotation axis and angle?

I have a robotics assignment, which I am unable to solve. Given the axis-angle rotation vector $\Theta = (2, 2, 0)$, how can I calculate the unit vector of the rotation axis $k$ and the angle $\theta$?...
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### Why is the derivative of the activation functions in neural networks important?

I'm new to NN. I am trying to understand some of its foundations. One question that I have is: why the derivative of an activation function is important (not the function itself), and why it's the ...
This is from the book Pattern Recognition by Bishop. Why is expectation here a simple average? Why is $f(x)$ not being multiplied by $p(x)$?