# Questions tagged [math]

For questions about mathematics related to artificial intelligence.

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### Is it possible to train the neural network to solve math equations?

I'm aware that neural networks are probably not designed to do that, however asking hypothetically, is it possible to train the deep neural network (or similar) to solve math equations? So given the ...
4k views

### Can neural networks be used to prove conjectures?

Imagine I have a list (in a computer-readable form) of all problems (or statements) and proofs that math relies on. Could I train a neural network in such a way that, for example, I enter a problem ...
16k views

### How does one start learning artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

I am a software engineering student and I am complete beginner to AI. I have read a lot of articles on how to start learning AI, but each article suggests a different way. I was wondering if some of ...
894 views

### What are the mathematical prerequisites for an AI researcher?

What are the mathematical prerequisites for understanding the core part of the algorithms in artificial intelligence and developing own algorithm? Please, refer me the specific books.
7k views

### How to choose an activation function?

I choose the activation function for the output layer depending on the output that I need and the properties of the activation function that I know. For example, I choose the sigmoid function when I'm ...
2k views

### How should I get started with artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

What is the mathematical background required to start learning AI? What else should I also learn?
4k views

### What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as a function where the ...
566 views

### Is there any scientific/mathematical argument that prevents deep learning from ever producing strong AI?

I read Judea Pearl's The Book of Why, in which he mentions that deep learning is just a glorified curve fitting technology, and will not be able to produce human-like intelligence. From his book ...
2k views

### What sort of mathematical problems are there in AI that people are working on?

I recently got a 18-month postdoc position in a math department. It's a position with relative light teaching duty and a lot of freedom about what type of research that I want to do. Previously I was ...
3k views

### Why do activation functions need to be differentiable in the context of neural networks?

Why should an activation function of a neural network be differentiable? Is it strictly necessary or is it just advantageous?
948 views

### How do we prove the n-step return error reduction property?

In section 7.1 (about the n-step bootstrapping) of the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (2nd edition), by Andrew Barto and Richard S. Sutton, the authors write about what they call the "n-...
2k views

### Is the mean-squared error always convex in the context of neural networks?

Multiple resources I referred to mention that MSE is great because it's convex. But I don't get how, especially in the context of neural networks. Let's say we have the following: $X$: training ...
2k views

### Which areas of applied math are relevant to AI? [duplicate]

My background is in electrical engineering. I have a good grasp of CS foundations (e.g. data structures, algorithms, operating systems, discrete math and software engineering). I have option of ...
167 views

### How does the forget layer of an LSTM work?

Can someone explain the mathematical intuition behind the forget layer of an LSTM? So as far as I understand it, the cell state is essentially long term memory embedding (correct me if I'm wrong), ...
2k views

### Why is the derivative of the activation functions in neural networks important?

I'm new to NN. I am trying to understand some of its foundations. One question that I have is: why the derivative of an activation function is important (not the function itself), and why it's the ...
2k views

### Why exactly do neural networks require i.i.d. data?

In reinforcement learning, in general, successive states (actions and rewards) are highly correlated. An "experience replay" buffer was used, in the DQN architecture, to avoid training the neural ...
791 views

### How can I start learning mathematics for machine learning?

I am an Android programmer. Now, I would like to learn machine learning. I know it requires a mathematical background, like statistics, probability, calculus and linear algebra. However, I am a bit ...
4k views

### What are the mathematical prerequisites to be able to study general artificial intelligence?

What are the mathematical prerequisites to be able to study general artificial intelligence (AI) or strong AI?
648 views

### How is local minima possible in gradient descent?

Gradient descent works on the equation of mean squared error, which is an equation of a parabola $y=x^2$. We often say that weight adjustment in a neural network by gradient descent algorithm can hit ...
721 views