# Questions tagged [math]

For questions about mathematics related to artificial intelligence.

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### What is the intuition behind the entropy formula used in the ID3 algorithm?

What is the intuition behind the following entropy formula used in the ID3 algorithm? $$\text{info}(D) = -\sum_{i=1}^m p_i \log_2(p_i)$$
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### What does the formula $1-\sum_i(e_i-a_i)^2$ mean in this NEAT Python API?

I have looked at the documentation for the NEAT Python API found here, but it shows calculus like this: The error for each genome is $1-\sum_i(e_i-a_i)^2$ I haven't learned calculus at the moment....
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### What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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### What do the subscripts mean in $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$?

A neural network can apparently be denoted as $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$. What do these subscripts $t, n, \sigma$ and $L$ mean? Could you link me to a paper, article or webpage with an explanation for this?
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### Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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### Which linear algebra book should I read to understand vectorized operations?

I am reading the Goodfellow's book about neural networks, but I am stuck in the mathematical calculus of the back-propagation algorithm. I understood the principle, and some Youtube videos explaining ...
36 views

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### Why exactly do neural networks require i.i.d. data?

In reinforcement learning, in general, successive states (actions and rewards) are highly correlated. An "experience replay" buffer was used, in the DQN architecture, to avoid training the neural ...