# Questions tagged [math]

For questions about mathematics related to artificial intelligence.

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### What is the neuron-level math behind backpropagation for a neural network?

I am quite new in the AI field. I am trying to create a neural network, in a language (Dart) where I couldn't find examples or premade libraries or tutorials. I've tried looking online for a strictly "...
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### What does the notation sup dist mean in distributional RL?

I'm trying to understand distributional RL, based on this article. In one of the equations, there is a symbol $\operatorname{sup dist}$. \begin{align} \operatorname{sup dist}_{s, a} (R(s, a) + \...
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### Is it ok to struggle with mathematics while learning AI as a beginner? [closed]

I have a decent background in Mathematics and Computer Science .I started learning AI from Andrew Ng's course from one month back. I understand logic and intuition behind everything taught but if ...
47 views

### How does the memory mechanism (reading and writing) work in a neural Turing machine?

In neural Turing machine (NTM), reading memory is represented as \begin{align} r_t \leftarrow \sum\limits_i^R w_t(i) \mathcal{M}_t(i) \tag{2} \end{align} and writing to memory is represented as ...
191 views

### Is there a way of representing the minimax algorithm mathematically?

I have successfully figured out how the minimax algorithm works for a game like chess, where a game tree is used, and you assign a value to the terminal nodes and propagate that value up the tree. Is ...
1k views

### What does the Markov assumption say about the history of state sequences?

Does the Markov assumption say that the conditional probability of the next state only depends on the current state or does it say that the conditional probability depends on a fixed finite number of ...
703 views

### What is the intuition behind the entropy formula used in the ID3 algorithm?

What is the intuition behind the following entropy formula used in the ID3 algorithm? $$\text{info}(D) = -\sum_{i=1}^m p_i \log_2(p_i)$$
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### What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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### What do the subscripts mean in $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$?

A neural network can apparently be denoted as $N_{t,n,\sigma,L}$. What do these subscripts $t, n, \sigma$ and $L$ mean? Could you link me to a paper, article or webpage with an explanation for this?
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### Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
39 views

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### Why do activation functions need to be differentiable in the context of neural networks?

Why should an activation function of a neural network be differentiable? Is it strictly necessary or is it just advantageous?
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### How are vectors and matrices multiplied in supervised machine learning?

I've recently started reading a book about deep learning. The book is titled "Grokking Deep Learning" (by Andrew W Trask). In chapter 3 (pages 44 and 45), it talks about multiplying vectors using dot ...
21k views

### Is it possible to train the neural network to solve math equations?

I'm aware that neural networks are probably not designed to do that, however asking hypothetically, is it possible to train the deep neural network (or similar) to solve math equations? So given the ...
288 views

I have followed the pseudocode in the ADADELTA paper (top right on page 3), and wrote the following Python code for solving the optimization problem L(x) = x^2: ...
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### Since there are different types of neurons in adjacent positions in the brain's arrays, should heterogeneous layers be developed?

Below is a taxonomy of neurons. Some of these types occur in different locations in the brain, but there are adjacent neurons of varying types with clearly functional type diversity in many parts of ...