# Questions tagged [math]

For questions about mathematics related to artificial intelligence.

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### Are on-line backpropagation iterations perpendicular to the constraint?

Raul Rojas' Neural Networks A Systematic Introduction, section 8.1.2 relates off-line backpropagation and on-line backpropagation with Gauss-Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods for finding the ...
109 views

### Which matrix represents the similarity between words when using SVD?

Two words can be similar if they co-occur "a lot" together. They can also be similar if they have similar vectors. This similarity can be captured using cosine similarity. Let $A$ be a $n \times n$ ...
70 views

### Why is the max a non-expansive operator?

In certain reinforcement learning (RL) proofs, the operators involved are assumed to be non-expansive. For example, on page 6 of the paper Generalized Markov Decision Processes: Dynamic-programming ...
88 views

### What characteristics make it difficult for a Neural Network to approximate a function?

What are the characteristics which make a function difficult for the Neural Network to approximate? Intuitively, one might think uneven functions might be difficult to approximate, but uneven ...
4k views

### What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as a function where the ...
21 views

### Does a mechanical system repeats itself?

The inverted pendulum problem is a famous control task. It can be solved with a technique called system identification. System identification means to formalize the state-action space of a system in a ...
1k views

### What are examples of applications of the Fourier transform to AI?

The (discrete and continuous) Fourier transform (FT) is used in signal processing in order to convert a signal (or function) in a certain domain (e.g. the time domain) to another domain (e.g., ...