Questions tagged [natural-language-processing]

For questions related to natural language processing (NLP), which is concerned with the interactions between computers and human (or natural) languages, in particular how to create programs that process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

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How can neural networks deal with varying input sizes?

As far as I can tell, neural networks have a fixed number of neurons in the input layer. If neural networks are used in a context like NLP, sentences or blocks of text of varying sizes are fed to a ...
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46 votes
4 answers
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Why does the transformer do better than RNN and LSTM in long-range context dependencies?

I am reading the article How Transformers Work where the author writes Another problem with RNNs, and LSTMs, is that it’s hard to parallelize the work for processing sentences, since you have to ...
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29 votes
9 answers
7k views

What is the actual quality of machine translations?

As an AI layman, till today I am confused by the promised and achieved improvements of automated translation. My impression is: there is still a very, very far way to go. Or are there other ...
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23 votes
3 answers
31k views

Can BERT be used for sentence generating tasks?

I am a new learner in NLP. I am interested in the sentence generating task. As far as I am concerned, one state-of-the-art method is the CharRNN, which uses RNN to generate a sequence of words. ...
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  • 333
17 votes
2 answers
347 views

What research has been done in the domain of "identifying sarcasm in text"?

Identifying sarcasm is considered one of the most difficult open-ended problems in the domain of ML and NLP/NLU. So, was there any considerable research done on that front? If yes, then what is the ...
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  • 1,351
16 votes
1 answer
7k views

How is BERT different from the original transformer architecture?

As far as I can tell, BERT is a type of Transformer architecture. What I do not understand is: How is Bert different from the original transformer architecture? What tasks are better suited for BERT,...
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15 votes
3 answers
797 views

How would an AI learn language?

I was think about AIs and how they would work, when I realised that I couldn't think of a way that an AI could be taught language. A child tends to learn language through associations of language and ...
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  • 255
15 votes
1 answer
4k views

How can Transformers handle arbitrary length input?

The transformer, introduced in the paper Attention Is All You Need, is a popular new neural network architecture that is commonly viewed as an alternative to recurrent neural networks, like LSTMs and ...
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14 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the specific requirements of the Turing test?

What are the specific requirements of the Turing test? What requirements if any must the evaluator fulfill in order to be qualified to give the test? Must there always be two participants in the ...
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  • 253
14 votes
3 answers
2k views

What roles knowledge bases play now and will play in the future?

Nowadays, artificial intelligence seems almost equal to machine learning, especially deep learning. Some have said that deep learning will replace human experts, traditionally very important for ...
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13 votes
2 answers
10k views

What are the main differences between skip-gram and continuous bag of words?

The skip-gram and continuous bag of words (CBOW) are two different types of word2vec models. What are the main differences between them? What are the pros and cons of both methods?
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13 votes
1 answer
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What is the intuition behind the dot product attention?

I am watching the video Attention Is All You Need by Yannic Kilcher. My question is: what is the intuition behind the dot product attention? $$A(q,K, V) = \sum_i\frac{e^{q.k_i}}{\sum_j e^{q.k_j}} v_i$$...
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  • 1,243
13 votes
3 answers
17k views

How do I compute the structural similarity between sentences?

I am working on a problem where I need to determine whether two sentences are similar or not. I implemented a solution using BM25 algorithm and wordnet synsets for determining syntactic & ...
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12 votes
5 answers
454 views

Have any AI systems yet been developed that can knowingly lie to / deceive a human?

AI systems today are very capable machines, and recently the area of Natural Language Processing and Response has been exploding with innovation, as well as the fundamental algorithmic structure of AI ...
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12 votes
1 answer
10k views

Are the dialogs at Sophia's (the robot) appearings scripted?

I talk about the robot from: Hanson Robotics, which was granted the right to citizenship from Saudi Arabia. I have found the following articles: Your new friend is a humanoid robot Source: ...
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12 votes
1 answer
1k views

Can an AI make a constructed (natural) language?

According to Wikipedia An artificial or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language that has been created by a person or small group, instead of being formed naturally as part of ...
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  • 223
12 votes
1 answer
448 views

How can Viv generate new code based on some user's query?

I have been looking into Viv, an artificial intelligent agent in development. Here is a demonstration of Viv (by Dag Kittlaus). Based on what I understand, this AI can generate new code and execute it ...
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11 votes
4 answers
5k views

Is there any open source counterpart to the IBM Watson? [closed]

I am looking for something similar to IBM Watson but open source.
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11 votes
2 answers
608 views

Is anybody still using Conceptual Dependency Theory?

Roger Schank did some interesting work on language processing with Conceptual Dependency (CD) in the 1970s. He then moved somewhat out of the field, being in Education these days. There were some ...
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10 votes
4 answers
857 views

Can the English language ever be generalized using a set of grammar rules?

In programming languages, there is a set of grammar rules which govern the construction of valid statements and expressions. These rules help in parsing the programs written by the user. Can there ...
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10 votes
3 answers
555 views

Is there an AI model for generating sarcastic sentences?

I am currently working on an Android AI app. I am aware of AI models to generate random sentences. However, is there an AI model for generating sarcastic sentences?
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10 votes
1 answer
286 views

Has anyone attempted to train an AI to learn all languages?

It seems that most projects attempt to teach the AI to learn individual, specific languages. It occurs to me that there are relations in written and spoken words and phrases across languages - most ...
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9 votes
3 answers
5k views

Can AI write good jokes yet?

Just watched a recent WIRED video on virtual assistants' performance on telling jokes. They're composed by humans, but I'd like to know if AI has gotten good enough to write some.
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9 votes
3 answers
2k views

What kind of word embedding is used in the original transformer?

I am currently trying to understand transformers. To start, I read Attention Is All You Need and also this tutorial. What makes me wonder is the word embedding used in the model. Is word2vec or GloVe ...
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9 votes
2 answers
8k views

What are the segment embeddings and position embeddings in BERT?

They only reference in the paper that the position embeddings are learned, which is different from what was done in ELMo. ELMo paper - https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.05365.pdf BERT paper - https://arxiv....
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  • 133
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the intuition behind the attention mechanism?

Attention idea is one of the most influential ideas in deep learning. The main idea behind attention technique is that it allows the decoder to "look back” at the complete input and extracts ...
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  • 1,193
8 votes
4 answers
360 views

Is language understanding possible without qualia?

I feel that many words if not all of them have a direct mapping to some kind of inner subjective experience, to a physical object, mental feeling, process or some other kind of abstract thing. Given ...
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8 votes
1 answer
166 views

What artificial intelligence strategies are useful for summarization?

If I have a paragraph I want to summarize, for example: Ponzo and Fila went to the mall during the day. They walked for a long while, stopping at shops. They went to many shops. At first, they didn'...
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8 votes
3 answers
3k views

Have capsule neural networks been used to NLP problems?

The capsule neural network seems to be a good solution for problems that involve hierarchies. For example, a face is composed of eyes, a nose and ears; a hand is made of fingers, nails, and a palm; ...
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  • 278
8 votes
2 answers
187 views

Are there any algorithms that can measure the concept similarity between texts?

Are there any algorithms (or software libraries) that can be used to detect the similarity of concepts in text, regardless of articulation, grammar, synonyms, etc.? For example, these phrases: ...
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  • 189
8 votes
2 answers
441 views

How can I translate a natural language question to an MDX query?

I am researching Natural Language Processing (NLP) to develop an NL Question Answering system. The answering part is already done. So processing the question remains, along with the questions ...
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  • 319
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

What are the current big challenges in natural language processing and understanding?

I'm doing a paper for a class on the topic of big problems that are still prevalent in AI, specifically in the area of natural language processing and understanding. From what I understand, the areas: ...
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  • 490
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is the perplexity a good evaluation metric for chatbots?

A few papers I have come across say that BLEU is not an appropriate evaluation metric for chatbots, so they use the perplexity. First of all, what is perplexity? How to calculate it? And why is ...
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8 votes
1 answer
179 views

Why are documents kept separated when training a text classifier?

Most of the literature considers text classification as the classification of documents. When using the bag-of-words and Bayesian classification, they usually use the statistic TF-IDF, where TF ...
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  • 236
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

What language is the GPT-3 engine written in?

I know that the API is python based, but what's the gpt-3 engine written in mostly? C? C++? I'm having some trouble finding this info.
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  • 195
7 votes
2 answers
803 views

How would an AI learn idiomatic phrases in a natural language?

After an AI goes through the process described in How would an AI learn language?, an AI knows the grammar of a language through the process of grammar induction. They can speak the language, but they ...
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  • 83
7 votes
2 answers
174 views

What was the first machine that was able to carry on a conversation?

What was the first AI that was able to carry on a conversation, with real responses, such as in the famous 'I am not a robot. I am a unicorn' case? A 'real response' constitutes a sort-of ...
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  • 1,706
7 votes
2 answers
562 views

How to determine if an Amazon review is likely to be fake using text classification

I'm currently in the research stage of building a web app in ASP.NET where the user can input a URL to an Amazon product, then the app would determine how likely its reviews are to be genuine. I need ...
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7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Did Turing foresee the required capabilities to pass the Turing test?

In Section 1.1 of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, it is stated that a computer which passes the Turing Test would need 4 capabilities, and that these 4 capabilities comprise most of the ...
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7 votes
3 answers
95 views

Is there a central focus on the communication methods between AI and humans?

AI is developing at a rapid pace and is becoming very sophisticated. One aspect will include the methods of interaction between AI and humans. Currently the interaction is an elementary interaction ...
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7 votes
2 answers
2k views

How is the F1 score calculated in a question-answering system?

I have an NLP model for answer-extraction. So, basically, I have a paragraph and a question as input, and my model extracts the span of the paragraph that corresponds to the answer to the question. I ...
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  • 409
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to recognise metaphors in texts using NLP/NLU?

What are the current NLP/NLU techniques that can extract metaphors from texts? For example His words cut deeper than a knife. Or a simpler form like: Life is a journey that must be travelled no ...
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7 votes
2 answers
4k views

How to resolve lexical ambiguity in natural language processing?

I'm interested in implementing a program for natural language processing (aka ELIZA). Assuming that I'm already storing semantic-lexical connections between the words and its strength. What are the ...
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  • 10k
7 votes
1 answer
451 views

Is Sanskrit still relevant for NLP/AI?

I came across a news article from 2018 where the president of India was saying that Sanskrit is the best language for ML/AI. I have no idea regarding his qualification on either AI or Sanskrit to say ...
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7 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to use BERT as a multi-purpose conversational AI?

I'm looking to make an NLP model that can achieve a dual purpose. One purpose is that it can hold interesting conversations (conversational AI), and another being that it can do intent classification ...
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  • 323
7 votes
1 answer
246 views

What are the most recent and influential breakthroughs in NLP?

I'm looking at the history of NLP, starting in the 1950s, with the Georgetown–IBM experiment. What are examples of the most recent (e.g. in the last 5-10 years) and influential breakthroughs in ...
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  • 71
7 votes
1 answer
292 views

What is predicate argument recognition?

There is a study about The Necessity of Parsing for Predicate Argument Recognition, however I couldn't find much information about 'Predicate Argument Recognition' which could explain it. What is it ...
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  • 10k
7 votes
1 answer
603 views

How do we know if GPT-2 is a better language model?

You may have heard of GPT2, a new language model. It has recently attracted attention from the general public as the foundation that published the paper, OpenAI, ironically refused to share the whole ...
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  • 232
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Which parsing algorithm can I use for NLP question answering system?

I am currently working on my last project before graduating. For this project, I have to develop a Natural Language Question Answering System. Now, I have read quite some research papers regarding ...
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  • 319
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the purpose of Decoder mask (triangular mask) in Transformer?

I'm trying to implement transformer model using this tutorial. In the decoder block of the Transformer model, a mask is passed to "pad and mask future tokens in the input received by the decoder&...
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