Questions tagged [norvig-russell]

For questions related to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach" by Peter Norvig and Stuart J. Russell.

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How is forward chaining complete?

Can anyone explain why forward chaining is complete? The AIMA proof went over my head. I understood the working of the algorithm and how we finally have an inferred ...
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AIMA, Inference Algorithm - Sound or Truth Preserving

AIMA: Chapter 7, page 216, Global Edition. An inference algorithm that derives only entailed sentences is called sound or truth preserving. Soundness is a highly desirable property. An unsound ...
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AIMA, Mutation in Genetic Algorithm

With regards to the highlighted line, the authors earlier stated that: The mutation rate, which determines how often offspring have random mutations to their representation. Once an offspring has ...
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What happens if MIN plays suboptimally and unpredictably?

The following quotes are an extract from AIMA, 3ed. The definition of optimal play for MAX assumes that MIN also plays optimally—it maximizes the worst-case outcome for MAX. What if MIN does not play ...
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Can we achieve optimality with minimax using an evaluation function?

The following quote (from AIMA) refers to the situation in which the minimax algorithm computes its values directly from the terminal states. (The) definition of optimal play for MAX assumes that MIN ...
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Is N the total number of nodes in the frontier plus the number of nodes in the explored list?

I'm studying fundamentals of AI from the classic Russell-Norvig book (3rd edition). I have a small doubt about the effective branching factor, which is defined as follows (section 3.6.1, p. 103): One ...
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Am I misunderstanding this exercise in the AIMA book about preference independence of random variables?

I'm trying to solve an exercise about preference independence from "Artificial Intelligence A modern approach". In particular, it's the second part of this one: https://nalinc.github.io/aima-...
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What is my mistake in applying the AC-3 algorithm on this problem?

I want to apply AC-3 algorithm to the following CSP: There are two variables $A$ and $B$. Domain of $A: \{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9\} $ Domain of $B: \{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9\} $ The ...
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Why is $P(X_{t+1} \mid e_{1:t}, e_{t+1}) = \alpha P(e_{t+1} \mid X_{t+1}, e_{1:t}) P(X_{t+1} \mid e_{1:t})$ true in Norvig & Russell's book?

On page 572 of Norvig & Russell's AI book (edition 3) Going from the first line to the second line in one shot like that, I am lost. Can someone walk me through it step by step? I tried but got: $...
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Why don't we wait if there is no patrons, in this decision tree from Russel and Norvig's book?

I'm reading Russel-Norvig's book about artificial intelligence and now at chapter decision tree where this figure is shown: So far I understood it. This decision tree should answer the question if we ...
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Is there an error in A* optimality proof Russel-Norvig 4th edition?

In "AI: A Modern Approach", 4th edition, by Russell and Norvig, they give a purported proof that A* is cost-optimal for any admissible heuristic. The given proof seems most certainly wrong. ...
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How do I know the matrix dimensions when summing out variable from product of factors?

Figure 14.10 on p. 527 of Norvig and Russell's book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach" shows: I see how the submatrices are formed by fixing the variable to each value of $A$, ie. ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Why is there a 1 in complexity formula of uniform-cost search?

I am reading the book titled Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 4th ed by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig. According to the book, the complexity of uniform-cost search is as $$ O(b^{1+\lfloor{...
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1 answer
323 views

How DFS may expand the same state many times via different paths in an acyclic state space?

I am reading the book titled Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig (4th edition) and came across this sentence about depth-first search (page 79, line 12): For ...
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1 answer
759 views

Why is this vacuum cleaner agent rational?

This is the vacuum cleaner example of the book "Artificial intelligence: A Modern Approach" (4th edition). Consider the simple vacuum-cleaner agent that cleans a square if it is dirty and ...
3 votes
2 answers
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What is the difference between the US and global edition of the AIMA book by Russell and Norvig?

The book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Russell and Norvig has two editions: global and the US. It looks like these two are generally the same, but have some differences in the order of ...
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253 views

How does randomization avoid entering infinite loops in the vacuum cleaner problem?

Suppose we have a vacuum cleaner operating in a $1 \times 2$ rectangle consisting of locations $A$ and $B$. The cleaner's actions are Suck, ...
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Understanding conflict set generation for conflict directed backjumping

I was reading Constraint Satisfaction Problem chapter from Artificial Intelligence 3rd ed book by Peter Norvig et al. On page 219, section 6.3 it explains computation of conflict set for conflict ...
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What is the difference between a performance standard and performance measure?

I am reading AI: A Modern Approach. In the 2nd chapter when introducing different agent types, i.e., reflex, utility-based, goal-based, and learning agents, I understood that all types of agents, ...
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Are Genetic Algorithms suitable for problems like the Knuth problem?

We all know that Genetic Algorithms can give an optimal or near-optimal solution. So, in some problems like NP-hard ones, with a trade-off between time and optimal solution the near-optimal solution ...
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What is the difference between derivation and entailment?

In section 7.3 of the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd edition), it's written An inference algorithm that derives only entailed sentences is called sound or truth-preserving. The ...
2 votes
1 answer
799 views

Why would the lookup table (of a table-driven artificial agent) need to store data at pixel precision?

While reading the book AI A modern approach, 4th ed, I came across the section of "Agent program" with following text: It is instructive to consider why the table-driven approach to agent ...
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What does the statement with the max do in the recursive best-first search algorithm?

I am reading the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach" by Stuart and Norvig. I'm having trouble understanding a step of the recursive best-first search (RBFS) algorithm. Here's the ...
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Understanding the pseudocode of uniform-cost search from the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"

On page 84 of Russell & Norvig's book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Book" (3rd edition), the pseudocode for uniform cost search is given. I provided a screenshot of it here for your ...
3 votes
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What is the difference between the concepts "known environment" and "deterministic environment"?

According to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach", "In a known environment, the outcomes (or outcome probabilities if the environment is stochastic) for all actions are given.", and ...
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A* and uniform-cost search are apparently incomplete

Consider the following diagram of a graph representing a search space. If we start at $B$ and try to reach goal state $E$, the lowest-cost first search (LCFS) (aka uniform-cost search) algorithm ...
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What does the Markov assumption say about the history of state sequences?

Does the Markov assumption say that the conditional probability of the next state only depends on the current state or does it say that the conditional probability depends on a fixed finite number of ...
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1 answer
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What is the difference between a problem representation and problem modelling?

As far as I know, a problem representation is the formulation of the problem in a way that it can be programmed and therefore solved (for example, you can represent the $N$-queens problem by using an ...
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How can I solve part b of exercise 3.6 from the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

I am trying to solve part b of the exercise 3.6 (page 113) from the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. More specifically, I need to give a complete problem formulation (that is precise ...
5 votes
2 answers
787 views

When is a knowledge base consistent?

I am studying a knowledge base (KB) from the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach" (by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig) and from this series of slides. A formula is satisfiable ...
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Which "assumptions" made about the state space are Russell and Norvig referring to in their book?

I am reading the cornerstone book, "Artificial Intelligence, A Modern Approach" by Stuart Russel, and Peter Norvig, and there is a passage in the book on page 98: The complexity results ...
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What are some alternatives to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

There are two textbooks that I most love and am most afraid of in the world: Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et al. and Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Norvig et al. I have started ...
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Are all fully observable environments episodic?

According to the definition of a fully observable environment in Russell & Norvig, AIMA (2nd ed), pages 41-44, an environment is only fully observable if it requires zero memory for an agent to ...
6 votes
1 answer
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How to turn a ternary constraint into three binary constraints?

I'm trying to solve problem 6.6 from the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, by Peter Norvig and Stuart Russell. This is in the context of Constraint Satisfaction Problem and how you can ...
8 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

In section 2.4 (p. 46) of the book Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach (3rd edition), Russell and Norvig write The job of AI is to design an agent program that implements the agent function — ...