# Questions tagged [notation]

For questions related to notation (in general).

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### Why is noise vector represented by letter $z$? [closed]

Most of the notations in Artificial Intelligence are borrowed from the mathematics. $x$ stands for input (vector), $y$ stands for output (vector) etc., and the list is long. But, I am not sure whether ...
• 3,251
281 views

### Is the Bandit Problem an MDP?

I've read Sutton and Barto's introductory RL book. They define a policy as a mapping from states to probabilities of selecting each possible action. If the agent is following policy $\pi$ at time $t$, ...
• 203
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### To denote a training example should I use row vector or column vector?

This code accesses the first 3 examples in the iris data set, from sklearn.datasets import load_iris iris = load_iris() print(iris.data[:3]) and gives ...
• 201
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### What is the correct notation for an operation that applies to each element of an array independently?

I am looking for the standard notation to define element-wise / Hadamard-style functions, if there is one. That is to say, if the operator I am looking for were represented by a hexagon ⬡, I could use ...
• 83
1 vote
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### In variational autoencoders, what does p(x|z) mean?

If $x \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu,\,\sigma^{2})$, then it is a continuous variable, and therefore $P(x) = 0$ for any x. One can only consider things like $P(x<X)$ to get a probability greater than 0. So ...
• 139
1 vote
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• 35
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### What do the variables in the cross-correlation formula mean?

I understand what cross-correlation does given a kernel and an input image, but the formula confuses me a little. Given here in Goodfellow's Deep Learning (page 329), I can't quite understand what $m$ ...
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### What is $\nabla_{\theta_{k-1}} \theta_{k}$ in the context of MAML?

I am attempting to fully understand the explicit derivation and computation of the Hessian and how it is used in MAML. I came across this blog: https://lilianweng.github.io/lil-log/2018/11/30/meta-...
### What does the parameter $y$ stand for in function $g(y,\mu,\sigma)$ related to REINFORCE algorithm?
I am wondering what the parameter $y$ in the function $g(y,\mu,\sigma)=\frac{1}{(2\pi)^{1/2}\sigma}e^{-(y-\mu)^{2/2\sigma^2}}$ stands for in Section 6 (page 14) of the paper introducing the REINFORCE ...