# Questions tagged [notation]

For questions related to notation (in general).

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### Understanding notation of Goodfellow's GAN objective function

What is the meaning of $V(D,G)$? How do we get these expectation parts? I was trying to understand it following this article: Understanding Generative Adversarial Networks (D.Seita), but, after many ...
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### Being confused of distribution notations in Deep Learning book

In chapter 5 of Deep Learning book of Ian Goodfellow, some notations in the loss function as below make me really confused. I tried to understand $x,y \sim p_{data}$ means a sample $(x, y)$ sampled ...
131 views

### What does the argmax of the expectation of the log likelihood mean?

What does the following equation mean? What does each part of the formula represent or mean? $$\theta^* = \underset {\theta}{\arg \max} \Bbb E_{x \sim p_{data}} \log {p_{model}(x|\theta) }$$
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### What does the formula $1-\sum_i(e_i-a_i)^2$ mean in this NEAT Python API?

I have looked at the documentation for the NEAT Python API found here, but it shows calculus like this: The error for each genome is $1-\sum_i(e_i-a_i)^2$ I haven't learned calculus at the moment....
108 views

### Understanding the notation in the definition of the expected reward

I am new to RL and I am trying to work through the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction I (Sutton & Barto, 2018). In chapter 3 on Finite Markov Decision Processes, the authors write the ...
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### Understanding the equation of the empirical error

The empirical error equation given in the book Understanding Machine Learning: From Theory to Algorithms is My intuition for this equation is: total wrong predictions divided by the total number of ...
46 views

### What is the use of the $\epsilon$ term in this back-propagation equation?

I am currently looking at different documents to understand back-propagation, mainly at this document. Now, at page 3, there is the $\epsilon$ symbol involved: While I understand the main part of the ...
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### What is the difference between the notations $\|x\|_1, \|x\|_2$ and $|x|$?

What is the difference between the notations $\|x\|_1, \|x\|_2$ and $|x|$? I think $|x|$ is the magnitude of $x$.
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### What is $I$ in the noise described in the paper “Parameter Space Noise for Exploration”?

In the paper Parameter Space Noise for Exploration, the authors describe the noise that they add to the parameter vector as: $$\tilde{\theta} = \theta + \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma^2I)$$ is $I$ simply ...
In the snippet below, the highlighted part is the average norm, but since $1/|p_i|$ is outside the summation, it is very confusing to understand. is $|p_i|$ l2-norm(as per wolfram) or l1-norm or ...
I'm wondering how is the general return-based off-policy equation in Safe and efficient off-policy reinforcement learning derived \mathcal{R} Q(x, a):=Q(x, a)+\mathbb{E}_{\mu}\left[\sum_{t \geq 0} \...