# Questions tagged [probability]

For question involving probability as related to AI methods. (This tag is for general usage. Feel free to utilize in conjunction with the "math" and more specific probability tags.)

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### How to guess a card in the game of Cambio with limited information?

I need help with a probability problem in the card game of Cambio. In this game, two players are dealt four cards each from a deck of 52 cards . At the start of the game, the bottom cards of each ...
1 vote
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### Given A and B, C are independent of each other. Given A, B and C, D and E are independent of each other. What is the minimal number of parameters?

Assuming all variables $A, B, C, D,$ and $E$ are random binary variables. I come up with Bayes net: $D \rightarrow B \rightarrow A \leftarrow C \leftarrow E$ which has the minimal number of parameters ...
62 views

### How to convert prediction probabilities of 2D images (initially 3D image) to 3D image predictions?

Classification: binary Model: CNN (ResNet50V2) During our research we've had 91x109x91 images (3-dimensional). We've used 2D CNN to train and evaluate our images and make predictions on labelled cases,...
1 vote
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### Use soft-max post-training for a ReLU trained network?

For a project, I've trained multiple networks for multiclass classification all ending with a ReLU activation at the output. Now the output logits are not probabilities. Is it valid to get the ...
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### Does generator in conditonal GAN obey probability laws?

In probability, we have two types of probability functions: unconditional probability $p(x)$ and conditional probability $p(x | y)$. Both are fundamentally different and the latter can be obtained by ...
459 views

### What exactly is a Parzen?

I came across the term "Parzen" while reading the research paper titled Generative Adversarial Nets. It has been used in the research paper in two contexts. #1: In phrase "Parzen window&...
1 vote
224 views

### Which probability distribution a generator in Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is capturing: dataset or ground truth?

Consider the following statement from the abstract of the paper titled Generative Adversarial Nets We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we ...
1 vote
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1 vote
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### Why am I getting the logarithm of the probability bigger than zero when using Neural Spline Flows?

I am using a normalizing flow (Neural Spline Flows) to approximate a probability. After some training, the average loss is around 0.5 (so the logarithm of the probability = -0.5). However, when I am ...
81 views

### What are some approaches to estimate the transition and observation probabilities in POMDP?

What are some common approaches to estimate the transition or observation probabilities, when the probabilities are not exactly known? When realizing a POMDP model, the state model needs additional ...
1 vote
358 views

### How can I convert the probability score between 0 to 1 to another format?

I have trained a multi-class CNN model using fastai. The model splits out probabilites for each of the three classes, which, of course, sum up to 1. The class with highest probability becomes the ...
1 vote
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### Is there an algorithm for "contextual recognition" with probabilities?

Example 1 An object is composed of 3 sub-objects. Object 1: 90% looks like an eye 10% looks like a wheel Object 2: 50% looks like an eye 50% looks like a wheel Object 3: 90% looks like a mouth 10% ...
1 vote
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### Probabilistic classification - normalize results

I have a probabilistic classifier that produces a distribution over my 3 classes - C1, C2, C3. I want to compare some new points I'm classifying to each other, to see which one is the best fit for a ...
1 vote
108 views

### Why is the entire area of a join probability distribution considered when it comes to calculating misclassification?

In the image given below, I do not understand a few things 1) Why is an entire area colored to signify misclassification? For the given decision boundary, only the points between $x_0$ and the ...
413 views

### What to do when PDFs are not Gaussian/Normal in Naive Bayes Classifier

While analyzing the data for a given problem set, I came across a few distributions which are not Gaussian in nature. They are not even uniform or Gamma distributions(so that I can write a function, ...
1 vote
60 views

### Unique game problem (ML, DP, PP etc)

Looking for a solution to my below game problem. I believe it to require some sort of reinforcement learning, dynamic programming, or probabilistic programming solution, but am unsure... This is my ...
1 vote
100 views

### Is there an AI model with "certainty" built in?

If I see a hundred elephants and fifty of them are grey I'd say the probability of an elephant being grey is 50%. And my certainty of that probability is high. However, if I see two elephants and one ... 