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Questions tagged [probability]

For question involving probability as related to AI methods. (This tag is for general usage. Feel free to utilize in conjunction with the "math" and more specific probability tags.)

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22 views

Formal definition of a “non-local” game?

This is an area I'm just getting into and starting to review the literature, but I can't easily find a fundamental definition of "nonlocal game". I came across the term in reference to methods of ...
14 views

Probabilistic classification - normalize results

I have a probabilistic classifier that produces a distribution over my 3 classes - C1, C2, C3. I want to compare some new points I'm classifying to each other, to see which one is the best fit for a ...
54 views

Why is the entire area of a join probability distribution considered when it comes to calculating misclassification?

In the image given below, I do not understand a few things 1) Why is an entire area colored to signify misclassification? For the given decision boundary, only the points between $x_0$ and the ...
92 views

What to do when PDFs are not Gaussian/Normal in Naive Bayes Classifier

While analyzing the data for a given problem set, I came across a few distributions which are not Gaussian in nature. They are not even uniform or Gamma distributions(so that I can write a function, ...
37 views

Unique game problem (ML, DP, PP etc)

Looking for a solution to my below game problem. I believe it to require some sort of reinforcement learning, dynamic programming, or probabilistic programming solution, but am unsure... This is my ...
61 views

Is there an AI model with “certainty” built in?

If I see a hundred elephants and fifty of them are grey I'd say the probability of an elephant being grey is 50%. And my certainty of that probability is high. However, if I see two elephants and one ...
51 views

Viterbi versus filtering

In Chapter 15 of Russel and Norvig's Artificial Intelligence -- A Modern Approach (Third Edition), they describe three basic tasks in temporal inference: Filtering, Likelihood, and Finding the ...
118 views

Why are VAE's useful?

I am not sure I understand what is the advantage of using a VAE's over a deterministic Auto Encoder? For example, assuming we have just 2 labels, a deterministic Auto Encoder will always map a given ...
79 views

The problem with the Gambler's Problem in RL

Recently I simulated the Gambler's Problem in RL: Now, the problem is, the curve does not at all appear the way as given in the book. The "best policy" curve appears a lot more undulating than it is ...
134 views

How can I develop a prediction algorithm for a game of chance?

How can I develop a prediction algorithm in the case of games of chance? Suppose there is a 50:50 chance of winning. Is there way of creating a prediction algorithm?
35 views

Was Nils Nilsson wrong with probabilistic knowledge representation?

He starts his paper from 1987  with a reference to the PROSPECTOR expert system which was using Bayes rules to handle uncertain knowledge. Then he explains the idea behind probabilistic logic which ...
37 views

How to make machine learning model that reports ambiguity of the input?

Suppose I want to build a neural network regression model that takes one input and return one output. Here's the training data: ...
10 views

How to use SLAM on other sensor other than camera?

I have a sensor that reads electromagnetic field strength from each position. And the field is stable and unique for each position. So the reading is simply a function of the position like this: <...
12 views

Any research that proposes ways to improve a semantic network from phonetic sequences?

Inputs: Time series of spectra representing human speech Semantic network (as a directed graph) associations Outputs: Modified version of the semantic network input Edge types in the graph (...
56 views

How do I combine two electromagnetic readings to predict the position of a sensor?

I have an electromagnetic sensor and electromagnetic field emitter. The sensor will read power from the emitter. I want to predict the position of the sensor using the reading. Let me simplify the ...
117 views

Reinforcement Learning (RL) how to obtain $p(s',r|s,a)$

I am trying to study the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (Sutton & Barto, 2018). In chapter 3.1 the authors state the following exercise Exercise 3.5 Give a table analogous to that ...
98 views

What are the meanings of these (P(x;y), P(x;y,z),P(x,y;z))?

I was reading a machine learning book that uses probabilities like these: $P(x;y), P(x;y,z), P(x,y;z)$ I couldn't find what they are and how can I read and understand them? Apart from the context, ...
38 views

SEIF motion update algorithm doubt

I want to implement Sparse Extended information slam. There is four step to implement it. The algorithm is available in Probabilistic Robotics Book at page 310, Table 12.3. In this algorithm line no:...
423 views

How does the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence differ from the Bayesian reasoning under uncertainty?

Dempster–Shafer theory (wiki) Bayesian probability (wiki) How do these two methods handle uncertainty in regard to information fusion?
1k views

Is Nassim Taleb right about AI not being able to accurately predict certain types of distributions?

So Taleb has two heuristics to generally describe data distributions. One is Mediocristan, which basically means things that are on a Gaussian distribution such as height and/or weight of people. The ...
593 views

Is the singularity concept mathematically flawed?

In Comes IQ When the concept of Intelligence Quotient arose it was based on this approximation. Each human being has a number that quantifies their intelligence relative to a fixed norm, and, ...
50 views

How important will statistical learning be to a conscious AI?

Deep learning is based on getting a large number of samples and essentially making statistical deductions and outputting probabilities. On the other hand we have formal programming languages like ...
165 views

Reinforcement Learning over an MDP that is actually a POMDP

Look at Breakout: We know that the underlying world behaves like an MDP, because for the evolution of the system it just need to know which is the current state, i.e. position, speed and speed ...
90 views

What does the argmax of the expectation of the log likelihood mean?

What does the following equation mean? What does each part of the formula represent or mean? $$\theta^* = \underset {\theta}{\arg \max} \Bbb E_{x \sim p_{data}} \log {p_{model}(x|\theta) }$$
181 views

How can I improve this word-prediction AI?

I'm relatively new to AI, and I've tried to create one that "speaks". Here's how it works: 1. Get training data e.g 'Jim ran to the shop to buy candy' 2. The data gets split into overlapping 'chains' ...
203 views

How do big companies apply machine learning?

I was wondering about how recommendation on youtube work for example ? How are the algorithms applied, because every user gets different recommendations depending on his location, his past liked ...