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Questions tagged [reference-request]

Use when requesting examples of research or research papers, books, articles, blog posts or courses. For example, "Is there any published research about X?" or "What are good examples of Y in research?".

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18 votes
3 answers
3k views

Which explainable artificial intelligence techniques are there?

Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is concerned with the development of techniques that can enhance the interpretability, accountability, and transparency of artificial intelligence and, in ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
31 votes
3 answers
16k views

Where can I find the proof of the universal approximation theorem?

The Wikipedia article for the universal approximation theorem cites a version of the universal approximation theorem for Lebesgue-measurable functions from this conference paper. However, the paper ...
Leroy Od's user avatar
  • 475
9 votes
1 answer
3k views

What are some resources on computational learning theory?

Pretty soon I will be finishing up Understanding Machine Learning: From Theory to Algorithms by Shai Ben-David and Shai Shalev-Shwartz. I absolutely love the subject and want to learn more, the only ...
PMaynard's user avatar
  • 248
4 votes
3 answers
7k views

How is the depth of a convolutional layer determined?

I am looking at a diagram of ZFNet below, in an attempt to understand how CNNs are designed. In the first layer, I understand the depth of 3 (224x224x3) is the number of color channels in the image. ...
OnNIX's user avatar
  • 143
67 votes
4 answers
121k views

How to select number of hidden layers and number of memory cells in an LSTM?

I am trying to find some existing research on how to select the number of hidden layers and the size of these of an LSTM-based RNN. Is there an article where this problem is being investigated, i.e., ...
Stephen Johnson's user avatar
25 votes
2 answers
12k views

Are there other approaches to deal with variable action spaces?

This question is about Reinforcement Learning and variable action spaces for every/some states. Variable action space Let's say you have an MDP, where the number of actions varies between states (for ...
Rikard Olsson's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
7k views

What are other examples of theoretical machine learning books?

I am looking for a book about machine learning that would suit my physics background. I am more or less familiar with classical and complex analysis, theory of probability, сcalculus of variations, ...
Ilya's user avatar
  • 133
4 votes
3 answers
646 views

What introductory books to reinforcement learning do you know, and how do they approach this topic?

Currently, I'm only going through these two books Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction, by Sutton and Barto: RL explained on an engineering level (mathematical, but readable for a non-...
tmaric's user avatar
  • 392
1 vote
2 answers
3k views

How can we estimate the transition model and reward function?

In reinforcement learning (RL), there are model-based and model-free algorithms. In short, model-based algorithms use a transition model $p(s' \mid s, a)$ and the reward function $r(s, a)$, even ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
29 votes
8 answers
4k views

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems?

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems? For example, is there a way to generate a letter "A", which every human being in this world can recognize ...
Lion Lai's user avatar
  • 433
14 votes
1 answer
580 views

What are the state-of-the-art results on the generalization ability of deep learning methods?

I've read a few classic papers on different architectures of deep CNNs used to solve varied image-related problems. I'm aware there's some paradox in how deep networks generalize well despite ...
Shirish's user avatar
  • 393
9 votes
5 answers
967 views

What's a good resource for getting familiar with reinforcement learning?

I am familiar with supervised and unsupervised learning. I did the SaaS course done by Andrew Ng on Coursera.org. I am looking for something similar for reinforcement learning. Can you recommend ...
Martin S's user avatar
  • 213
0 votes
1 answer
232 views

Are there other mathematical frameworks of artificial general intelligence apart from AIXI?

AIXI is a mathematical framework for artificial general intelligence developed by Marcus Hutter since the year 2000. It's based on many concepts, such as reinforcement learning, Bayesian statistics, ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
58 votes
11 answers
12k views

What are some well-known problems where neural networks don't do very well?

Background: It's well-known that neural networks offer great performance across a large number of tasks, and this is largely a consequence of their universal approximation capabilities. However, in ...
ABIM's user avatar
  • 565
19 votes
3 answers
3k views

What are the mathematical prerequisites for an AI researcher?

What are the mathematical prerequisites for understanding the core part of various algorithms involved in artificial intelligence and developing one's own algorithms? Please, refer to some specific ...
Surya Bhusal's user avatar
16 votes
2 answers
743 views

How can I automate the choice of the architecture of a neural network for an arbitrary problem?

Assume that I want to solve an issue with a neural network that either I can't fit to existing architectures (perceptron, Konohen, etc) or I'm simply not aware of the existence of those or I'm unable ...
Zoltán Schmidt's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
8k views

When should I use 3D convolutions?

I am new to convolutional neural networks, and I am learning 3D convolution. What I could understand is that 2D convolution gives us relationships between low-level features in the X-Y dimension, ...
Shobhit Verma's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
4k views

How can you represent the state and action spaces for a card game in the case of a variable number of cards and actions?

I know how a machine can learn to play Atari games (Breakout): Playing Atari with Reinforcement Learning. With the same technique, it is even possible to play FPS games (Doom): Playing FPS Games with ...
Stefe Klauou's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

How to write a C decompiler using AI?

I would like to learn more about whether it is possible and how to write a program that decompiles executable binary (an object file) to the C source. I'm not asking exactly 'how', but rather how this ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
5 votes
3 answers
369 views

How is neural architecture search performed?

I have come across something that IBM offers called neural architecture search. You feed it a data set and it outputs an initial neural architecture that you can train. How is neural architecture ...
Adam Geringer's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
435 views

In what ways can connectionist AI be integrated with GOFAI?

In what ways can connectionist artificial intelligence (neural networks) be integrated with Good Old-Fashioned A.I. (GOFAI)? For instance, how could deep neural networks be integrated with knowledge ...
rcpinto's user avatar
  • 2,119
3 votes
2 answers
409 views

What are some books or state of the art papers about the development of a strong-AI?

I am looking for books or to state of the art papers about current the development trends for a strong-AI. Please, do not include opinions about the books, just refer the book with a brief ...
pasaba por aqui's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
805 views

Apart from the state and state-action value functions, what are other examples of value functions used in RL?

In reinforcement learning, we often define two functions, the state-value function $$V^\pi(s) = \mathbb{E}_{\pi} \left[\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \gamma^{k}R_{t+k+1} \Bigg| S_t=s \right]$$ and the state-...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
2 votes
1 answer
779 views

What are some online courses on artificial general intelligence?

Although no artificial general intelligence (AGI) has yet been created, probably, there are already some courses on the topic. So, what are some online (preferably free) courses on AGI?
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
2 votes
2 answers
185 views

AI with conflicting objectives?

A recent question on AI and acting recalled me to the idea that in drama, there are not only conflicting motives between agents (characters), but a character may themselves have objectives that are in ...
DukeZhou's user avatar
  • 6,237
2 votes
2 answers
70 views

Are any AI systems available, or in development, for finding and analysing fallacious inference in natural language text?

Poor reasoning, and ignorance in general, is the source of a lot of suffering and evil. Covertly erroneous logic is often used in manipulation. And much of this broken thought is being used directly ...
Michael's user avatar
  • 146
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Should one use an "other" category in image classification?

In image classification, there are sometimes images that do not fit in any category. For example, if I build a CNN in Keras to classify Dogs and Cats, does it help (in terms of training time and ...
Ruthger Righart's user avatar
36 votes
7 answers
8k views

What are examples of promising AI/ML techniques that are computationally intractable?

To produce tangible results in the field of AI/ML, one must take theoretical results under the lens of computational complexity. Indeed, minimax effectively solves any two-person "board game"...
k.c. sayz 'k.c sayz''s user avatar
20 votes
2 answers
9k views

How do neural networks play chess?

I have been spending a few days trying to wrap my head around how and why neural networks are used to play chess. Although I know very little about how the game of chess works, I can understand the ...
stats_noob's user avatar
20 votes
4 answers
29k views

Where can I find the original paper that introduced RNNs?

I was able to find the original paper on LSTM, but I was not able to find the paper that introduced "vanilla" RNNs. Where can I find it?
Ahsan Tarique's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
10k views

Are the dialogs at Sophia's (the robot) appearings scripted?

I talk about the robot from: Hanson Robotics, which was granted the right to citizenship from Saudi Arabia. I have found the following articles: Your new friend is a humanoid robot Source: ...
tgogos's user avatar
  • 251
13 votes
3 answers
21k views

Is it possible to train a neural network to estimate a vehicle's length?

I have a large dataset (over 100k samples) of vehicles with the ground truth of their lengths. Is it possible to train a deep network to measure/estimate vehicle length? I haven't seen any papers ...
Naji's user avatar
  • 139
13 votes
6 answers
485 views

Are there any decentralized examples of AI systems with blockchain technology?

Has there been any attempts to deploy AI with blockchain technology? Are there any decentralized examples of AI networks with no central point of control with AI nodes acting independently (but ...
Tobias Strand's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
3k views

What are some alternatives to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

There are two textbooks that I most love and am most afraid of in the world: Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et al. and Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Norvig et al. I have started ...
ml_nrd's user avatar
  • 111
9 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the proof that policy evaluation converges to the optimal solution?

Although I know how the algorithm of iterative policy evaluation using dynamic programming works, I am having a hard time realizing how it actually converges. It appeals to intuition that, with each ...
SAGALPREET SINGH's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Which machine learning models are universal function approximators?

The universal approximation theorem states that a feed-forward neural network with a single hidden layer containing a finite number of neurons can approximate any continuous function (provided some ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is there any research on the application of AI for drug design?

Is there any research on the application of AI for drug design? For example, you could train a deep learning model about current compounds, substances, structures, and their products and chemical ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
8 votes
3 answers
4k views

Is there any board game where a human can still beat an AI?

Significant AI vs human board game matches include: chess: Deep Blue vs Kasparov in 1996, go: DeepMind AlphaGo vs Lee Sedol in 2016, which demonstrated that AI challenged and defeated professional ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
7 votes
1 answer
113 views

Medical diagnosis systems based on artificial neural networks

Are there any medical diagnosis systems that are already used somewhere that are based on artificial neural networks?
vojtak's user avatar
  • 173
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

Which Rosenblatt's paper describes Rosenblatt's perceptron training algorithm?

I struggle to find Rosenblatt's perceptron training algorithm in any of his publications from 1957 - 1961, namely: Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms The ...
Cryptiex's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
659 views

Does an AI exist that can write software based on a formal specification?

Does an AI exist that can automatically write software based on a formal specification of the software?
user79161's user avatar
  • 369
7 votes
3 answers
2k views

Which functions can't neural networks learn efficiently?

There are a lot of papers that show that neural networks can approximate a wide variety of functions. However, I can't find papers that show the limitations of NNs. What are the limitations of ...
user2674414's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
988 views

What are some intermediate or advanced books on neural networks?

Is anyone able to recommend some resources (preferably books) on the topic of neural networks that goes beyond that of introductory reading? I'm still relatively new to the subject, however, I have ...
Astronought's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
994 views

What are the state-of-the-art approaches for continual learning with neural networks?

There seems to be a lot of literature and research on the problems of stochastic gradient descent and catastrophic forgetting, but I can't find much on solutions to perform continual learning with ...
gcorso's user avatar
  • 366
5 votes
1 answer
594 views

Can CNNs be made robust to tricks where small changes cause misclassification?

I while ago I read that you can make subtle changes to an image that will ensure a good CNN will horribly misclassify the image. I believe the changes must exploit details of the CNN that will be used ...
Ted Ersek's user avatar
  • 153
4 votes
0 answers
362 views

What are some interesting recent papers that synthesize symbolic AI with Deep Learning?

A lot of people seem to be under the impression that combining GOFAI and contemporary AI will make models more general. I'm particularly interested in reasoning through analogy or case-based reasoning....
Daniel's user avatar
  • 326
4 votes
1 answer
6k views

What are some good alternatives to U-Net for biomedical image segmentation?

Soon I will be working on biomedical image segmentation (microscopy images). There will be a small amount of data (a few dozens at best). Is there a neural network, that can compete with U-Net, in ...
Nuwanda's user avatar
  • 41
4 votes
1 answer
473 views

What kind of algorithm is used by StackGAN to generate realistic images from text?

What kind of algorithm is used by StackGAN to generate realistic images from text? How does StackGAN work?
Aneesh bhat's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
613 views

Are there some notions of distance between two policies?

I want to determine some distance between two policies $\pi_1 (a \mid s)$ and $\pi_2 (a \mid s)$, i.e. something like $\vert \vert \pi_1 (a \mid s) - \pi_2(a \mid s) \vert \vert$, where $\pi_i (a\mid ...
Felix P.'s user avatar
  • 297
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there a simple proof of the convergence of TD(0)?

Does anybody know a simple proof of the convergence of the TD(0) value function prediction algorithm?
KaneM's user avatar
  • 309