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Questions tagged [reference-request]

Use when requesting examples of research or research papers, books, articles, blog posts or courses. For example, "Is there any published research about X?" or "What are good examples of Y in research?".

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67 votes
4 answers
121k views

How to select number of hidden layers and number of memory cells in an LSTM?

I am trying to find some existing research on how to select the number of hidden layers and the size of these of an LSTM-based RNN. Is there an article where this problem is being investigated, i.e., ...
Stephen Johnson's user avatar
58 votes
11 answers
12k views

What are some well-known problems where neural networks don't do very well?

Background: It's well-known that neural networks offer great performance across a large number of tasks, and this is largely a consequence of their universal approximation capabilities. However, in ...
ABIM's user avatar
  • 565
36 votes
7 answers
8k views

What are examples of promising AI/ML techniques that are computationally intractable?

To produce tangible results in the field of AI/ML, one must take theoretical results under the lens of computational complexity. Indeed, minimax effectively solves any two-person "board game"...
k.c. sayz 'k.c sayz''s user avatar
31 votes
3 answers
16k views

Where can I find the proof of the universal approximation theorem?

The Wikipedia article for the universal approximation theorem cites a version of the universal approximation theorem for Lebesgue-measurable functions from this conference paper. However, the paper ...
Leroy Od's user avatar
  • 475
30 votes
4 answers
5k views

What are the current theories on the development of a conscious AI?

What are the current theories on the development of a conscious AI? Is anyone even trying to develop a conscious AI? Is it possible that consciousness is an emergent phenomenon, that is, once we put ...
Micky-D's user avatar
  • 401
29 votes
8 answers
4k views

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems?

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems? For example, is there a way to generate a letter "A", which every human being in this world can recognize ...
Lion Lai's user avatar
  • 433
28 votes
4 answers
11k views

How could we build a neural network that is invariant to permutations of the inputs?

Given a neural network $f$ that takes as input $n$ data points: $x_1, \dots, x_n$. We say $f$ is permutation invariant if $$f(x_1 ... x_n) = f(\sigma(x_1 ... x_n))$$ for any permutation $\sigma$. How ...
Josef Ondrej's user avatar
25 votes
2 answers
12k views

Are there other approaches to deal with variable action spaces?

This question is about Reinforcement Learning and variable action spaces for every/some states. Variable action space Let's say you have an MDP, where the number of actions varies between states (for ...
Rikard Olsson's user avatar
20 votes
2 answers
9k views

How do neural networks play chess?

I have been spending a few days trying to wrap my head around how and why neural networks are used to play chess. Although I know very little about how the game of chess works, I can understand the ...
stats_noob's user avatar
20 votes
4 answers
29k views

Where can I find the original paper that introduced RNNs?

I was able to find the original paper on LSTM, but I was not able to find the paper that introduced "vanilla" RNNs. Where can I find it?
Ahsan Tarique's user avatar
19 votes
3 answers
3k views

What are the mathematical prerequisites for an AI researcher?

What are the mathematical prerequisites for understanding the core part of various algorithms involved in artificial intelligence and developing one's own algorithms? Please, refer to some specific ...
Surya Bhusal's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
3k views

Which explainable artificial intelligence techniques are there?

Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is concerned with the development of techniques that can enhance the interpretability, accountability, and transparency of artificial intelligence and, in ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
18 votes
2 answers
364 views

What research has been done in the domain of "identifying sarcasm in text"?

Identifying sarcasm is considered one of the most difficult open-ended problems in the domain of ML and NLP/NLU. So, was there any considerable research done on that front? If yes, then what is the ...
Dawny33's user avatar
  • 1,371
16 votes
2 answers
743 views

How can I automate the choice of the architecture of a neural network for an arbitrary problem?

Assume that I want to solve an issue with a neural network that either I can't fit to existing architectures (perceptron, Konohen, etc) or I'm simply not aware of the existence of those or I'm unable ...
Zoltán Schmidt's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
10k views

Are the dialogs at Sophia's (the robot) appearings scripted?

I talk about the robot from: Hanson Robotics, which was granted the right to citizenship from Saudi Arabia. I have found the following articles: Your new friend is a humanoid robot Source: ...
tgogos's user avatar
  • 251
14 votes
1 answer
5k views

Which approaches could I use to create a simple chatbot using a neural network?

I wanted to start experimenting with neural networks, so I decided to make a chatbot (like Cleverbot, which is not that clever anyway) using them. I looked around for some documentation and I found ...
Totem's user avatar
  • 381
14 votes
1 answer
580 views

What are the state-of-the-art results on the generalization ability of deep learning methods?

I've read a few classic papers on different architectures of deep CNNs used to solve varied image-related problems. I'm aware there's some paradox in how deep networks generalize well despite ...
Shirish's user avatar
  • 393
13 votes
2 answers
243 views

Is there any artificial intelligence that possesses "concentration"?

Humans can do multiple tasks at the same (e.g. reading while listening to music), but we memorize information from less focused sources with worse efficiency than we do from our main focus or task. ...
Zoltán Schmidt's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can an AI make a constructed (natural) language?

According to Wikipedia An artificial or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language that has been created by a person or small group, instead of being formed naturally as part of ...
Kevin's user avatar
  • 233
13 votes
6 answers
485 views

Are there any decentralized examples of AI systems with blockchain technology?

Has there been any attempts to deploy AI with blockchain technology? Are there any decentralized examples of AI networks with no central point of control with AI nodes acting independently (but ...
Tobias Strand's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
7k views

What are other examples of theoretical machine learning books?

I am looking for a book about machine learning that would suit my physics background. I am more or less familiar with classical and complex analysis, theory of probability, сcalculus of variations, ...
Ilya's user avatar
  • 133
13 votes
3 answers
21k views

Is it possible to train a neural network to estimate a vehicle's length?

I have a large dataset (over 100k samples) of vehicles with the ground truth of their lengths. Is it possible to train a deep network to measure/estimate vehicle length? I haven't seen any papers ...
Naji's user avatar
  • 139
12 votes
1 answer
2k views

What are the best known gradient-free training methods for deep learning?

As I know, the current state of the art methods for training deep learning networks are variants of gradient descent or stochastic gradient descent. What are the best known gradient-free training ...
rkellerm's user avatar
  • 334
12 votes
2 answers
714 views

Is anybody still using Conceptual Dependency Theory?

Roger Schank did some interesting work on language processing with Conceptual Dependency (CD) in the 1970s. He then moved somewhat out of the field, being in Education these days. There were some ...
Oliver Mason's user avatar
  • 5,397
11 votes
2 answers
3k views

What are some alternatives to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

There are two textbooks that I most love and am most afraid of in the world: Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et al. and Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Norvig et al. I have started ...
ml_nrd's user avatar
  • 111
11 votes
2 answers
46k views

How can these 7 AI problem characteristics help me decide on an approach to a problem?

If this list1 can be used to classify problems in AI ... Decomposable to smaller or easier problems Solution steps can be ignored or undone Predictable problem universe Good solutions are ...
user4856's user avatar
  • 111
10 votes
2 answers
8k views

When should I use 3D convolutions?

I am new to convolutional neural networks, and I am learning 3D convolution. What I could understand is that 2D convolution gives us relationships between low-level features in the X-Y dimension, ...
Shobhit Verma's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

How can I encode angle data to train neural networks?

I am training a neural network where the target data is a vector of angles in radians (between $0$ and $2\pi$). I am looking for study material on how to encode this data. Can you supply me with a ...
user366312's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
916 views

Is there an AI model for generating sarcastic sentences?

I am currently working on an Android AI app. I am aware of AI models to generate random sentences. However, is there an AI model for generating sarcastic sentences?
Praharsh Bhatt's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
4k views

How can you represent the state and action spaces for a card game in the case of a variable number of cards and actions?

I know how a machine can learn to play Atari games (Breakout): Playing Atari with Reinforcement Learning. With the same technique, it is even possible to play FPS games (Doom): Playing FPS Games with ...
Stefe Klauou's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is there an ideal range of learning rate which always gives a good result almost in all problems?

I once read somewhere that there is a range of learning rate within which learning is optimal in almost all the cases, but I can't find any literature about it. All I could get is the following graph ...
Sadaf Shafi's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
3k views

Is the expert system still in use today?

In my country, the Expert System class is mandatory, if you want to take the AI specialization in most universities. In class, I learned how to make a rule-based system, forward chaining, backward ...
malioboro's user avatar
  • 2,819
10 votes
4 answers
361 views

Has the spontaneous emergence of replicators been modeled in Artificial Life?

One of the cornerstones of The Selfish Gene (Dawkins) is the spontaneous emergence of replicators, i.e. molecules capable of replicating themselves. Has this been modeled in silico in open-ended ...
sihubumi's user avatar
  • 101
10 votes
1 answer
357 views

Can Bayesian inference be combined with knowledge-based systems?

I've been struggling with the connection between knowledge-based AI systems and Bayesian inference for a while now. While I continue to sweep through the literature, I would be happy if someone can ...
PintoUbuntu's user avatar
9 votes
5 answers
3k views

What are examples of approaches to create an AI for a fighting robot in an MMO game?

I have an MMO game where I have players. I wanted to invent something new to the game, and add player-bots to make the game be single-playable as well. The AI I want to add is simply only for fighting ...
Ben Beri's user avatar
9 votes
5 answers
967 views

What's a good resource for getting familiar with reinforcement learning?

I am familiar with supervised and unsupervised learning. I did the SaaS course done by Andrew Ng on Coursera.org. I am looking for something similar for reinforcement learning. Can you recommend ...
Martin S's user avatar
  • 213
9 votes
3 answers
908 views

What are some resources with exercises related to neural networks?

I am asking for a book (or any other online resource) where we can solve exercises related to neural networks, similar to the books or online resources dedicated to mathematics where we can solve ...
DSarkar's user avatar
  • 228
9 votes
1 answer
3k views

What are some resources on computational learning theory?

Pretty soon I will be finishing up Understanding Machine Learning: From Theory to Algorithms by Shai Ben-David and Shai Shalev-Shwartz. I absolutely love the subject and want to learn more, the only ...
PMaynard's user avatar
  • 248
9 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the proof that policy evaluation converges to the optimal solution?

Although I know how the algorithm of iterative policy evaluation using dynamic programming works, I am having a hard time realizing how it actually converges. It appeals to intuition that, with each ...
SAGALPREET SINGH's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
6k views

Can AI write good jokes yet?

Just watched a recent WIRED video on virtual assistants' performance on telling jokes. They're composed by humans, but I'd like to know if AI has gotten good enough to write some.
user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are general ideas behind OpenCog?

OpenCog is an open source AGI-project co-founded by the mercurial AI researcher Ben Goertzel. Ben Goertzel writes a lot of stuff, some of it really whacky. Nonetheless, he is clearly very intelligent ...
BlindKungFuMaster's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
14k views

Is it possible to clean up an audio recording of a lecture using some type of AI system?

Is it possible to clean up an audio recording of a lecture from a smartphone (i.e. remove the background noise) using some type of AI system?
Thibault Molleman's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
630 views

Are biological neurons organized in consecutive layers as well?

I'm now reading a book titled Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn and TensorFlow and in the Chapter 10 of the book, the author writes the following: The architecture of biological neural ...
Blaszard's user avatar
  • 1,047
9 votes
1 answer
688 views

What are some resources on continuous state and action spaces MDPs for reinforcement learning?

Most introductions to the field of MDPs and Reinforcement learning focus exclusively on domains where space and action variables are integers (and finite). This way we are introduced quickly to Value ...
CarrKnight's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
310 views

How powerful is the machine that beat the poker professional players recently?

How powerful is the machine that beat the poker professional players recently (DeepStack)?
user6411's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
4k views

Is there any board game where a human can still beat an AI?

Significant AI vs human board game matches include: chess: Deep Blue vs Kasparov in 1996, go: DeepMind AlphaGo vs Lee Sedol in 2016, which demonstrated that AI challenged and defeated professional ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is there any research on the application of AI for drug design?

Is there any research on the application of AI for drug design? For example, you could train a deep learning model about current compounds, substances, structures, and their products and chemical ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Which machine learning models are universal function approximators?

The universal approximation theorem states that a feed-forward neural network with a single hidden layer containing a finite number of neurons can approximate any continuous function (provided some ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.8k
8 votes
1 answer
175 views

How does Atlas from Boston Dynamics have human-like movement?

Discussing the video More Parkour Atlas, a friend asked how the robot's movement was so similar to the one from a real human and wondering how this is achieved? To my knowledge, this is not something ...
Édouard Lopez's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
571 views

What are the state-of-the-art approaches for detecting the most important "visual attention" area of an image?

I'm trying to detect the visual attention area in a given image and crop the image into that area. For instance, given an image of any size and a rectangle of say $L \times W$ dimension as an input, I ...
Mary's user avatar
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