# Questions tagged [search]

For questions involving search algorithms and their use in artificial intelligence

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Pardon me if this is a very naive question. Suppose I search for something on Google and my next-door neighbour searches for the same thing (on Google) at the same time. Do we get the same or ...
157 views

### Can minimax be used when both players want to increase their score?

If both the players want to increase their score (by selecting the highest or best cost path), can this be done using the minimax algorithm, or are there other algorithms for this purpose?
435 views

### More effective way to improve the heuristics of an AI… evolution or testing between thousands of pre-determined sets of heuristics?

I'm making a Connect Four game where my engine uses Minimax with Alpha-Beta pruning to search. Since Alpha-Beta pruning is much more effective when it looks at the best moves first (since then it can ...
89 views

### How do we determine whether a heuristic is better than another?

I am trying to solve a Maze puzzle using the A* algorithm. I am trying to analyze the algorithm based on different applicable heuristics. Currently, I explored the Manhattan and Euclidean distances. ...
69 views

### A* and uniform-cost search are apparently incomplete

Consider the following diagram of a graph representing a search space. If we start at $B$ and try to reach goal state $E$, the lowest-cost first search (LCFS) (aka uniform-cost search) algorithm ...
41 views

### Why is the effective branching factor used for measuring performance of a heuristic function?

For search algorithms with heuristic functions, performance of heuristic functions are measured by effective branching factor ${b^*}$ which involves total nodes expanded ${N}$ and depth of the ...
216 views

### Why is breadth-first search only optimal when the cost solution is a non-decreasing function?

I am learning about searching strategies in AI and I was reading that breadth-first search is only optimal when the cost solution is a non-decreasing function? I am not really sure what this refers to ...
93 views

### Does depth-first search always stop when it has found the leftmost solution?

I'm a fresh learner of AI. I was told that depth-first search is not an optimal searching algorithm since "it finds the 'leftmost' solution, regardless of depth or cost". Therefore, does it mean that ...
81 views

### Is this ExpectiMinimax Tree correctly drawn?

I need help with ExpectiMinimax problem: Start a game. The first player flips a coin. The second player flips a coin. The first player decides if he wants to flip another coin. The second player ...
8k views

### What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
286 views

### How can I solve part b of exercise 3.6 from the book “Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach”?

I am trying to solve part b of the exercise 3.6 (page 113) from the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. More specifically, I need to give a complete problem formulation (that is precise ...
96 views

### Is the minimum and maximum of a set of admissible and consistent heuristics also consistent and admissible?

Let's suppose I have a set of heuristics $H$ = {$h_1, h_2, ..., h_N$}. If all heuristics in $H$ are admissible, does that mean that a heuristic that takes the $\min(H)$ (or $\max(H)$ for that matter) ...
54 views

### Can two admissable heuristics not dominate each other?

I am working on a project for my artificial intelligence class. I was wondering if I have 2 admissible heuristics, A and B, is it possible that A does not dominate B and B does not dominate A? I am ...
244 views

### How to create an AI to solve a word search?

This at first sounds ridiculous. Of course there is an easy way to write a program to solve a wordsearch. But what I would like to do is write a program that solves a word-search like a human. That ...
67 views

### How is the cost of the path to each node computed in A*?

How is the cost of the path to each node $n$ computed in the A* algorithm? Do we need to add the cost of the path to the parent node $p$ to the cost of the path of the child node $n$?
580 views

### What is the difference between graph search and tree search? [duplicate]

First of all, there is a lot of misunderstanding about the graph search and tree search. The difference between these two is not about graphs and trees. They have two different algorithms. You can ...
10k views

### What are the differences between greedy best-first and the A* search algorithms? [duplicate]

What are the differences between greedy best-first and the A* search algorithms? How is A* better than the greedy best-first search algorithm?
692 views

### What are the differences between uniform-cost search and greedy best-first search?

What are the differences between the uniform-cost search (UCS) and greedy best-first search (GBFS) algorithms? How would you convert a UCS into a GBFS?
45 views

### In the graph search version of A*, can I stop the search the first time I encounter the goal node?

I am going through Russel and Norvig's Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd edition). I was reading the part regarding the A* algorithm A* graph search version is optimal when heuristic ...
784 views

### What is the difference between the breadth-first search and recursive best-first search?

What is the difference between the breadth-first search and recursive best-first search? How can I describe the key difference between them?
196 views

### How does A* search work given there are multiple goal states?

When I have read through the fundamentals of AI, I saw a situation (i.e., a search space) which is illustrated in the following picture. These are the heuristic estimates: ...
5k views

### How does the uniform-cost search algorithm work?

What is the uniform-cost search (UCS) algorithm? How does it work? I would appreciate seeing a graphical execution of the algorithm. How does the frontier evolve in the case of UCS?
2k views

### How do I show that uniform-cost search is a special case of A*?

How do I show that uniform-cost search is a special case of A*? How do I prove this?
68 views

9k views

### What are the differences between A* and greedy best-first search?

What are the differences between the A* algorithm and the greedy best-first search algorithm? Which one should I use? Which algorithm is the better one, and why?
43 views

### How to transform a PDDL to search?

I have a question about search and planning: I still haven't understood the difference from the two, but they seem very similar to me; here is a question I am struggling with: "Having formulated a ...
54 views

### How do I model the blocked N queens problem as a search problem?

The blocked N-queens is a variant of the N-queens problem. In the blocked N-queens problem, we also have a NxN chess board and N queens. Each square can hold at most one queen. Some squares on the ...
5k views

### What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
470 views

### Why teaching only search algorithms in a short introductory AI course?

I understood that the concept of search is important in AI. There's a question on this website regarding this topic, but one could also intuitively understand why. I've had an introductory course on ...
124 views

### Why is informed search more efficient than uninformed search?

Why does informed search more efficiently finds a solution than an uninformed search?
46 views

### What kind of search method is A*?

What kind of search method is A*? Explain to me with an example.
127 views

### Using graph searching to solve peg solitaire?

Problem: I've been reading research papers on how to solve a peg solitaire using graph searching, but all the papers kind of assume you know how to do the reduction(polynomial time conversion) from ...
64 views

### How do we find the length (depth) of the game tic-tac-toe in adversarial search?

When we perform the tic-tac-toe game using adversarial search I know how make a tree. Is there a way to find the depth of the tree; which level is the last level?
71 views

### Why is a mix of greedy and random usually “best” for stochastic local search?

I read that a mix of "greedy" and "random" are ideal for stochastic local search (SLS), but I'm not sure why. It mentioned that the greedy finds the local minima and the randomness avoids getting ...
55 views

### Can AC-3 algorithm solve N-Queens problem?

I am building CSP NQueens solver and apply the AC-3 algorithm.But,the domain reduction doesn't occur and gets more search time.How does it happen?Is it a nature of AC-3 algorithm?
136 views

### What is the difference between search and learning?

I came across an article, The Bitter Truth, via the Two Minute Papers YouTube Channel. Rich Sutton says... One thing that should be learned from the bitter lesson is the great power of general ...
23 views

### what are the similarity measure use for both continuous and categorical data?

I have searched but found that some similarity measures are for continuous data and some are for categorical data. But i want to know the similarity measures which are use for both data, continuous ...
107 views

### Memory intensive local search methods

I have been studying local search algorithms such as greedy hill climbing, stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing etc. I have noticed that most of these methods take up very little memory as ...
2k views

### What is the difference between local search and global search algorithms?

What is the difference between local search and global (or complete) search algorithms?
85 views

### How do I choose the search algorithm for a particular task?

How do I choose the search algorithm for a particular task? Which criteria should I take into account?
63 views

### How can the A* algorithm be optimized?

How can the A* algorithm be optimized? Any references that shows the optimization of A* algorithm are also appreciated.