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# Questions tagged [statistical-ai]

For questions about the applications/clarifications/intuitions/proofs behind the use of statistical methods in AI/ML programs.

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• 40.8k
1 vote
72 views

### What would be the reason behind using plots (such as box-plots or histograms) for ML development?

I've been learning Python machine-learning using this project report and the guy who wrote it begins by visualizing his data using various statistical analysis methods: histograms, density plots, box ...
1 vote
24 views

### Does distribution of data augmentation parameters matter?

Idea Let's say we have simple pictures dataset containing 40x40 images of digits. We have only one image of each digit. We want to use that as training set, but we need more data, so we use data ...
216 views

### Is the target assumed to be a noisy version of the output of the model in machine learning?

I wonder if the following equation (you can find it in almost every ML book) refers to a general assumption that we make when using machine learning: $$y = f(x)+\epsilon,$$ where $y$ is our output, $f$...
• 99
82 views

### Can AI be understood as a generalized statistics tool? [duplicate]

I am a (soon-to-become, to be honest) theoretical physicist. I want to learn a bit about AI. So as you know in physics we develop theories based on as few and as simple basic equations as possible ...
26 views

### Mapping given probabilities to empirical probabilities

Consider following problem statement: You have given $n$ actions. You can perform any of them. Each action gives you success with some probability. The challenge is to perform given finite number of ...
• 221
123 views

### How to calculate the data noise variance for a prediction interval?

I have a neural network that connects $N$ input variables to $M$ output variables (qoi). By default, neural networks just give out point estimations. Now, I want to plot some of the quantity of ...
• 131
71 views

### Simplification of expected reward under the limit in continuous tasks

I was reading the average reward setting for continuous tasks from rich sutton's book (page 202, 2nd edition). There he perform a simplification over the expected reward under the limit approaching to ...
• 693
1 vote
39 views

### Do the variance and bias belong to the policy or value functions?

Recently, I read many papers on variance and bias. But I am still confused by the two notions, the variance or bias belongs to who? Policy or value? If the variance or bias is large or low, what ...
• 150
1 vote
69 views

### Is there any way to apply linear transformations on a vector other than matrix multiplication?

I am trying to optimize the cost function calculation in regression analysis using a non-matrix multiplication based approach. More specifically, I have a point $x = (1, 1, 2, 3)$, to which I want to ...
63 views

### Is maximum likelihood estimation meaningless for a dataset of only outliers?

From my understanding, maximum likelihood estimation chooses the set of parameters for the estimator that maximizes likelihood with the ground truth distribution. I always interpreted it as the ...
• 1,419
1 vote
56 views

### What is the difference between an generalised estimating equation and a recurrent neural network?

What is the difference between a generalised estimating equation (GEE) model and a recurrent neural network (RNN) model, in terms of what these two models are doing? Apart from the differences in the ...
• 151
726 views

### Is traditional machine learning obsolete given that neural networks typically outperform them?

I have been coming across visualizations showing that the neural nets tend to perform better as compared to the traditional machine learning algorithms (Linear regression, Log regression, etc.) ...
• 143
2k views

### How can supervised learning be viewed as a conditional probability of the labels given the inputs?

In the literature and textbooks, one often sees supervised learning expressed as a conditional probability, e.g., $$\rho(\vec{y}|\vec{x},\vec{\theta})$$ where $\vec{\theta}$ denotes a learned set of ...
• 33
883 views

### What's going on in the equation of the variational lower bound?

I don't really understand what this equation is saying or what the purpose of the ELBO is. How does it help us find the true posterior distribution?
• 351
118 views

### Is there any measure of separability of classes?

I want to know if there is a measure of how well two classes in Y are separable (linearly or not) based on their features in X. Easiest way of explaining this is to compare it to correlation ...
• 1,260
56 views

### How to calculate the false positives and negatives?

I have a huge amount of data and I want to calculate my false positive and false negative. Is there a software that can help me determine it?
87 views

### When could a linear discriminant give excellent or possibly even the optimal classification accuracy?

I am actually reading the linear classification. There is a question in the question set behind the chapter in the book as follows: Sketch two multimodal distributions for which a linear discriminant ...
130 views

### Is explainable AI more feasible through symbolic AI or soft computing?

Is explainable AI more feasible through symbolic AI or soft computing? How much each paradigm, symbolic AI and soft computing (or hybrid approaches), addresses explanation and argumentation, where ...
1 vote
80 views

### Auto-regression - Reduce error in prediction

I am trying to develop a time series model using autoregression. The data set is like as follows ...
• 183
7k views

### Why exactly do neural networks require i.i.d. data?

In reinforcement learning, successive states (actions and rewards) can be correlated. An experience replay buffer was used, in the DQN architecture, to avoid training the neural network (NN), which ...
• 40.8k
1 vote
73 views

### Can we derive the distribution of a random variable based on a dependent random variable's distribution?

In the diagram below, there are three variables: X3 is a function of (depends on) X1 and X2, ...
• 111
7k views

### Are neural networks statistical models?

By reading the abstract of Neural Networks and Statistical Models paper it would seem that ANNs are statistical models. In contrast Machine Learning is not just glorified Statistics. I am looking ...
• 216
495 views

### What makes a machine learning algorithm a low variance one or a high variance one?

Some examples of low-variance machine learning algorithms include linear regression, linear discriminant analysis, and logistic regression. Examples of high-variance machine learning algorithms ...
• 368
552 views

### Does the correlation between inputs affect the model performance?

I'm currently working on a regression problem and I have 10 inputs/attributes. What should I do if there are correlations between different features of the input data? Does the correlation between ...
962 views

### What are the differences in scope between statistical AI and classical AI?

What are the differences in scope between statistical AI and classical AI? Real-world examples would be appreciated.
• 323
271 views

### Reinforcement learning objective as conditional expectations

In one of his lectures Levine describes the objective of reinforcement learning as: $$J(\tau) = E_{\tau\sim p_\theta(\tau)}[r(\tau)]$$ where $\tau$ refers to a single trajectory and $p_\theta(\tau)$ ...
• 163
4k views

### Is Nassim Taleb right about AI not being able to accurately predict certain types of distributions?

So Taleb has two heuristics to generally describe data distributions. One is Mediocristan, which basically means things that are on a Gaussian distribution such as height and/or weight of people. The ...
• 171
2k views

### Why do we need Upsampling and Downsampling in Progressive Growing of Gans

I was working recently on Progressive Growing of GANs (aka PGGANs). I have implemented the whole architecture, but the problem that was ticking my mind is that in simple GANs, like DCGAN, PIX2PIX, we ...
1 vote
93 views

### Confidence interval around a DNN prediction

I am facing a problem and do not know whether it is even solvable: I want to predict the behaviour of a system using a DNN, say a CNN, in the sense that I want to predict the time and intensity of a ...
• 173
66 views

### How important will statistical learning be to a conscious AI?

Deep learning is based on getting a large number of samples and essentially making statistical deductions and outputting probabilities. On the other hand, we have formal programming languages, like ...
• 2,216
116 views

### Finding the right questions to increase accuracy in classification

Lets say I have a list of 100k medical cases from my hospital, each row = patient with symptoms (such as fever , funny smell, pain etc.. ) and my labels are medical conditions such as Head trauma, ...
• 133
424 views

### Are standard deviation, variance, skew good features for ML?

Pretty simple question here: Is it useful to use the standard deviation, skew, kurtosis, or any other extrapolatory stats as features, and if so in which problem sets? In this case, I am talking ...
• 1,245
98 views

### Is there a way of computing a prominence score based on the prevalence of features in an image?

Is there any previous work on computing some sort of prominence score based on the prevalence of features in an image? For example, let's say I am classifying images based on whether or not they have ...
• 1,245
220 views

### How to figure out which words have the same meaning in two different languages?

Imagine two languages that have only these words: Man = 1, deer = 2, eat = 3, grass = 4 And you would form all sentences possible from these words: ...
• 219
209 views

### With gradient descent w/MSE on a regression, must/should every Epoch use the exact same training samples?

Let's say I've got a training sample set of 1 million records, which I pull batches of 100 from to train a basic regression model using gradient descent and MSE as a loss function. Assume test and ...
• 131