For questions related to stochastic gradient descent (SGD), which is stochastic gradient descent that uses stochastic (or noisy) gradients.

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How does SGD training error decrease in subsequent epochs when statistically, it requires that samples in subsequent epochs be i.i.d and they are not?

I have been reading the Deep Learning book by Ian Goodfellow and on pg. 277, they mention: It is also crucial that the minibatches be selected randomly. Computing an unbiased estimate of the expected ...
1 vote
85 views

How does stochastic gradient descent undo the normalization done by the batch normalization?

I want to understand the handshake between SGD (or mini-batch GD) and batch normalization. Below, an explanation quoted from this Medium article. However, I am confused about the denormalization by ...
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From wikipedia page it mentioned: To economize on the computational cost at every iteration, stochastic gradient descent samples a subset of summand functions at every step. This is very effective in ...
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Can we use Stochastic Gradient Descent and its derivatives for geographical researches?

I am a freshman AI engineering student actually working on a project where I have to analyze a big amount of geographical data to find out an optimal position of latitude and altitude for a specific ...
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What is the difference between batch and mini-batch gradient decent?

I am learning deep learning from Andrew Ng's tutorial Mini-batch Gradient Descent. Can anyone explain the similarities and dissimilarities between batch GD and mini-batch GD?
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Should we also shuffle the test dataset when training with SGD?

When training machine learning models (e.g. neural networks) with stochastic gradient descent, it is common practice to (uniformly) shuffle the training data into batches/sets of different samples ...
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How do I handle negative rewards in policy gradients with the cross-entropy loss function?

I am using policy gradients in my reinforcement learning algorithm, and occasionally my environment provides a severe penalty (i.e. negative reward) when a wrong move is made. I'm using a neural ...
688 views

Is the choice of the optimiser relevant when doing object detection?

Suppose that we have 4 types of dogs that we want to detect (Golden Retriever, Black Labrador, Cocker Spaniel, and Pit Bull). The training data consists of png images of a data set of dogs along with ...
208 views

How does SGD escape local minima?

SGD is able to jump out of local minima that would otherwise trap BGD I don't really understand the above statement. Could someone please provide a mathematical explanation for why SGD (Stochastic ...
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