For questions related to stochastic gradient descent (SGD), which is stochastic gradient descent that uses stochastic (or noisy) gradients.

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### How do I choose the optimal batch size?

Batch size is a term used in machine learning and refers to the number of training examples utilised in one iteration. The batch size can be one of three options: batch mode: where the batch size is ...
913 views

### Is neural networks training done one-by-one? [duplicate]

I'm trying to learn neural networks by watching this series of videos and implementing a simple neural network in Python. Here's one of the things I'm wondering about: I'm training the neural network ...
9k views

### How do I handle negative rewards in policy gradients with the cross-entropy loss function?

I am using policy gradients in my reinforcement learning algorithm, and occasionally my environment provides a severe penalty (i.e. negative reward) when a wrong move is made. I'm using a neural ...
4k views

### What is the relationship between gradient accumulation and batch size?

I am currently training some models using gradient accumulation since the model batches do not fit in GPU memory. Since I am using gradient accumulation, I had to tweak the training configuration a ...
882 views

### What exactly is averaged when doing batch gradient descent?

I have a question about how the averaging works when doing mini-batch gradient descent. I think I now understood the general gradient descent algorithm, but only for online learning. When doing mini-...
2k views

### Is back-propagation applied for each data point or for a batch of data points?

I am new to deep learning and trying to understand the concept of back-propagation. I have a doubt about when the back-propagation is applied. Assume that I have a training data set of 1000 images ...
143 views

### How does SGD escape local minima?

SGD is able to jump out of local minima that would otherwise trap BGD I don't really understand the above statement. Could someone please provide a mathematical explanation for why SGD (Stochastic ...
357 views

### Why is the learning rate generally beneath 1?

In all examples I've ever seen, the learning rate of an optimisation method is always less than $1$. However, I've never found an explanation as to why this is. In addition to that, there are some ...
53 views

### In the MINE paper, why is $\hat{G}_B$ biased, and how does the exponential moving average reduce the bias?

While reading the Mutual Information Neural Estimation (MINE) paper [1] I came across section 3.2 Correcting the bias from the stochastic gradients. The proposed method requires the computation of the ...
99 views

### Is there any way to train a neural network without using gradients?

The only algorithm I know for updation of weights of a neural network is based on gradients. The update equation can be roughly written as $$w \leftarrow w - \nabla_{w}L$$ where $\nabla_{w}L$ is the ...
54 views

### What is the difference between batch and mini-batch gradient decent?

I am learning deep learning from Andrew Ng's tutorial Mini-batch Gradient Descent. Can anyone explain the similarities and dissimilarities between batch GD and mini-batch GD?
24 views

### Is it possible to use stochastic gradient descent at the beginning, then switch to batch gradient descent with only a few training examples?

Batch gradient descent is extremely slow for large datasets, but it can find the lowest possible value for the cost function. Stochastic gradient descent is relatively fast, but it kind of finds the ...
130 views

### What's the rationale behind mini-batch gradient descent?

I am reading a book that states As the mini-batch size increases, the gradient computed is closer to the 'true' gradient So, I assume that they are saying that mini-batch training only focuses on ...
375 views

### Is the choice of the optimiser relevant when doing object detection?

Suppose that we have 4 types of dogs that we want to detect (Golden Retriever, Black Labrador, Cocker Spaniel, and Pit Bull). The training data consists of png images of a data set of dogs along with ...
27 views

### Methodologies for passing the best samples for a neural network to learn

Just an idea I am sure I read in a book some time ago, but I can't remember the name. Given a very large dataset and a neural network (or anything that can learn via something like stochastic gradient ...
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### Issue with graphical interpretation of the universal approximation theorem

This article attempts to provide a graphical justification of the universal approximation theorem. It succeeds in showing that a linear combination of two sigmoids can produce essentially a bounded ...
77 views

### Stochastic gradient descent does not behave as expected, even with different activation functions

I have been working on my own AI for a while now, trying to implemented SGD with momentum from scratch in python. After looking around and studying all the maths behind it, i finally managed to ...
184 views

### How does batch size affect model size?

I'm suffering from a significant brain fart while trying to get my head around how does batch size affect overall model size e.g for CNNs. Does it serve as an additional dimension for all the weight ...
64 views

### Why do momentum techniques not work well for RNNs?

AFAIK, momentum is quite useful when training CNNs, and can speed-up the training substantially without any drop in validation accuracy. I've recently learned that it is not as helpful for RNNs, where ...
457 views

### What is the order of execution of steps in back-propagation algorithm in a neural network?

I am a machine learning newbie. I am trying to understand the back-propagation algorithm. I have a training dataset of 60 instances/records. What is the correct order of the process? This one? ...
50 views

### Commonly used learning rate schedules - linear warmup with linear decay?

I came across this post https://paperswithcode.com/methods/category/learning-rate-schedules which lists some different learning rate schedules and the number of papers which use them. I was a bit ...