Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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22 views

What is the difference between the concepts “known environment” and “deterministic environment”?

According to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach", "In a known environment, the outcomes (or outcome probabilities if the environment is stochastic) for all actions are given.", and ...
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1answer
44 views

What is “Computational Linguistics”?

It's not clear to me whether or not someone whose work aims to improve an NLP system may be called a "Computational Linguist" even when she/he doesn't modify the algorithm directly by coding. Let's ...
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What does “episodic training” mean?

I'm reading the book Hands-On Meta Learning with Python, and in Prototypical networks said: So, we use episodic training—for each episode, we randomly sample a few data points from each class in ...
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1answer
42 views

Are CNN, LSTM, GRU and transformer AGI or computational intelligence tools?

Will CNN, LSTM, GRU and transformer be better classified as Computational Intelligence (CI) tools or Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) tools? The term CI arose back when some codes like neural ...
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35 views

What role do distractors play in natural language processing?

I’m doing research on natural language processing (NLP). I’d like to put together my own model. However, I'm running into a concept I am not familiar with, namely, distractors. A google search does ...
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What is the term for an RNN that is a completely connected directed graph?

There seems to be a severe problem with the taxonomy of neural network topologies. What I'd like to know is the term I should use to search for the most general topology: completely connected ...
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1answer
62 views

What are the characteristics of a deep learning AI?

I have experience in making several Artificial Neural Networks and some programs which may be classified as an Artificial Intelligence by using Tensorflow.js and Brain.js. In order to produce ...
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22 views

What is “temporal depth”?

I need some explanation about the following paragraph (page 3) from the paper A Novel Approach for Robust Multi Human Action Detection and Recognition based on 3-Dimentional Convolutional Neural ...
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2answers
76 views

What is the difference between a learning algorithm and a hypothesis?

What's the distinction between a learning algorithm $A$ and a hypothesis $f$? I'm looking for a few concrete examples, if possible. From what I understand, one way to vary the hypothesis $f$ would be ...
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10answers
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How can an AI train itself if no one is telling it if its answer is correct or wrong?

I am a programmer but not in the field of AI. A question constantly confuses me is that how can an AI be trained if we human beings are not telling it its calculation is correct? For example, news ...
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1answer
236 views

What is the “semantic level”?

I am reading the paper Hierarchical Attention-Based Recurrent Highway Networks for Time Series Prediction (2018) by Yunzhe Tao et al. In this paper, they use several times the expression "semantic ...
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2answers
215 views

What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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212 views

What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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1answer
29 views

Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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1answer
72 views

What is convergence in machine learning?

I came across this answer on Quora, but it was pretty sparse. I'm looking for specific meanings in the context of machine learning, but also mathematical and economic notions of the term in general.
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2answers
51 views

What does “immediate vector-valued feedback” mean?

In the book Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning, James Stone says With supervised learning, the response to each input vector is an output ...
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3answers
218 views

What is the name of an AI whose primary goal is to create a better AI?

A general AI x creates another AI y which is better than x. y creates an AI better than itself. And so on, with each generation's primary goal to create a better AI. Is there a name for this. By ...
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1answer
675 views

What does 'democratizing AI' exactly mean?

In my AI literature research, I often notice authors use term 'democratizing AI', especially in the AutoML area. I think I have an idea of what this means, but I would like to ask you for some more ...
3
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1answer
111 views

What are sim2sim, sim2real and real2real?

Recently, I always hear about the terms sim2sim, sim2real and real2real. Will anyone explain the meaning/motivation of these terms (in DL/RL research community)? What are the challenges in this ...
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22 views

What are the exact meaning of “lower-order structure” and “higher-order structure” in this paper?

I recently read a paper on community detection in networks. In the paper EdMot: An Edge Enhancement Approach for Motif-aware Community Detection, the authors consider the "lower-order structure" of ...
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1answer
47 views

Terminology for the use of datasets as data points

As computers are getting bigger better and faster, the concept of what constitutes a single datum is changing. For example, in the world of pen-and-paper, we might take readings of temperature over ...
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1answer
31 views

What is the correct name for state explosion from sensor discretization?

The position of a robot on a map contains of an x/y value, for example $position(x=100.23,y=400.78)$. The internal representation of the variable is a 32bit float which is equal to 4 byte in the RAM ...
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2answers
47 views

What is “Word Sense Disambiguation”?

I recently came across this article which cites a paper which apparently won outstanding paper in ACL 2019. The theme is that it solved a longstanding problem called Word Sense Disambiguation. What ...
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1answer
168 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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What are the major differences between cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions?

I find the terms cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions to be interchangeable, but any kind of minor difference explained is appreciated.
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What is the difference between learning without forgetting and transfer learning?

I would like to incrementally train my model with my current dataset and I asked this question on Github issues, which is what I'm using SSD MobileNet v1: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/issues/...
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54 views

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?
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72 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
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What is the meaning of the words 'bias' and 'variance' in RL?

In algorithms like MC/TD (tabular value approximation) two of the metrics used to measure their performance are the bias and the variance. What do these terms mean? And which characteristic of the ...
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28 views

Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
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75 views

How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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1answer
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What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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168 views

What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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1answer
98 views

What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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2answers
139 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
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1answer
36 views

Would you term Google's Captchas as Turing Test?

Quoting from Wikipedia page on Turing Test The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable ...
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38 views

What is the difference between Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning?

Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning are two AI subfields which seem to have something to do with reasoning. However, I can't find any information online about their relationship. Are ...
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1answer
428 views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
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2answers
66 views

Describing the order of a tensor

When describing tensors of higher order I feel like there is an overloading of the term dimension as it may be used to describe the order of the tensor but also the dimensionality of the... "orders"? ...
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1answer
84 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
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1answer
42 views

What is the prediction accuracy?

In simple words, what is the prediction accuracy? What is it based on? How does it help? When is it used?
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783 views

Why is it called Latent Vector?

I just learned about GAN and I'm a little bit confused about the naming of Latent Vector. First, In my understanding, a definition of a latent variable is a random variable that can't be measured ...
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1answer
13 views

Should I call the error “validation error” or “test error” during cross validation?

I'm using 10-fold cross validation on all models. Here you can see both plots: Since I am using k-fold cross validation, is it okay to name it "validation error vs training error" or "test error vs ...
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43 views

Why do we use the word “kernel” in the expression “Gaussian kernel”?

I've heard the expression "Gaussian kernel" in several contexts (e.g. in the kernel trick used in SVM). A Gaussian kernel usually refers to a Gaussian function (that is, a function similar to the ...
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1answer
49 views

What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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987 views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
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1answer
227 views

What's the difference between a static AI and a dynamic AI?

I recently watched a YouTube video (sorry, can't remember the link) where (a very talented) someone created what they called a "static AI". Somewhere in the video they said something along the lines ...
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1answer
72 views

Is there a Hebb neural network?

Is there a Hebb neural network? What kind of functions can it implement? Or, are there multiple "Hebb networks", that is, neural networks that learn in a Hebbian fashion?
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3answers
180 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
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157 views

Is reinforcement learning using shallow neural networks still deep reinforcement learning?

Often times I see the term deep reinforcement learning to refer to RL algorithms that use neural networks, regardless of whether or not the networks are deep. For example, PPO (https://arxiv.org/pdf/...