Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

1
vote
1answer
19 views

Is the definition of machine learning by Mitchell in his book “Machine Learning” valid?

The definition machine learning is as follows: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and performance measure P, if its performance at task T, as ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

What is the difference between an episode, a trajectory and a rollout?

I often see the terms episode, trajectory and rollout to refer to basically the same thing, a list of (state, action, rewards). Are there any concrete differences between the terms or can they be used ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What is the relation between online learning and on-policy algorithms?

In the context of RL, there is the notion of on-policy and off-policy algorithms. I roughly understand the difference between on-policy and off-policy algorithms. Moreover, in RL, there's also the ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Is learning the same thing as learning to learn?

Learning to Learn The goal of learning is to be able to perform based on what was learned. The goal of learning to learn, such as learning how to study for a class, is to be able to perform too. ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

What is the difference between search and planning?

I'm studying Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach, Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig, specifically about search and planning arguments. I don't understand the difference between the two terms. I was ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

What is meant by the research topic “Humanitarian AI”?

What exactly is meant by "humanitarian AI"? What research areas does this cover? AI in healthcare? Algorithmic fairness? Applications of AI for economic development? Can anyone provide links to ...
3
votes
2answers
57 views

What is a bad local minimum in machine learning?

What is "bad local minima"? The following papers all mention this expression. Eliminating all bad Local Minima from Loss Landscapes without even adding an Extra Unit limination of All Bad Local ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Continuous-attractor neural network explanation

I am reading about CANN, however, I do not seem to grasp what it is. Maybe someone who has worked with it can explain it? I found out about it while reading about RatSLAM. I understand that it helps ...
3
votes
3answers
169 views

If AI can perceive, can it be sentient? [duplicate]

AI should be perceiving - I think. There are debates around the world about the intelligence of an Super-Intelligent AI. I'm curious whether AI can have sentience or not.
1
vote
0answers
66 views

What is the role of biology is in AI?

Biology is used in AI terminology. What are the reasons? What does biology have to do with AI? For instance, why is the genetic algorithm used in AI? Does it fully belong to biology?
4
votes
3answers
99 views

Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
1
vote
0answers
76 views

How Swarm Intelligence can empower Blockchain?

Are there examples of applications in blockchain consensus using swarm intelligence, as opposed to classical consensus mechanisms like PoW or PBFT? Please note that recent classical consensuses, ...
4
votes
4answers
218 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
7
votes
2answers
146 views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
7
votes
2answers
322 views

What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
1
vote
2answers
713 views

Greedy best first Search Algorithm vs A* search Algorithm

Greedy best first search Algorithm take the history and then check value ans then reach to goal. In A* search Algorithm take history and also cost then calculate value then reach to goal. When we ...
3
votes
3answers
225 views

What is the name of an AI system that learns by trial and error?

Imagine a system that controls dampers in a complex vent system that has an objective to perfectly equalize the output from each vent. The system has sensors for damper position, flow at various ...
1
vote
4answers
301 views

Can a brain be intelligent without a body?

A more formal implication of this question is whether intelligence requires a context. On Topic This question may have little value to the fields of data science or statistics, however it is of ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Differences between an agent that thinks rationally and an agent that acts rationally?

Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig pointed out 4 four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence: systems that think/act humanly/rationally. What are the differences between an agent that ...
6
votes
2answers
102 views

What does “stationary” mean in the context of reinforcement learning?

I think I've seen the expressions "stationary data", "stationary dynamics" and "stationary policy", among others, in the context of reinforcement learning. What does it mean? I think stationary policy ...
4
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the relation between an environment, a state and a model?

In particular, I would like to have a simple definition of "environment" and "state". What are the differences between those two concepts? Also, I would like to know how the concept of model relates ...
6
votes
2answers
138 views

In what ways is the term “topology” applied to Artificial Intelligence?

I have a only a general understanding of General Topology, and want to understand the scope of the term "topology" in relation to the field of Artificial Intelligence. In what ways are topological ...
6
votes
1answer
345 views

Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence

Having analysed,reviewed quite a number of user questions inline with answers concerning AI,sometimes I understand nor take note that AI community does not try much to avoid the term computational ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic. At least I know they are different from Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C), as A3C adds ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

What is the difference between policy and action in Reinforcement Learning?

I'm confused with the two terminology - action and policy - in Reinforcement Learning. As far as I know, the action is: It is what the agent makes in a given state. However, the book I'm reading ...
2
votes
2answers
255 views

What is a “trajectory” in reinforcement learning?

I'm now learning about reinforcement learning, but I just found the word "trajectory" in this answer. However, I'm not sure what it means. I read a few books on the Reinforcement Learning but none of ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Is it a valid Deep Neural Network?

For a regression task, I have sequences of training data and if I define the layers of deep neural network to be: Layers=[ sequenceInputLayer(featuredimension) reluLayer dropoutLayer(0.05) ...
1
vote
1answer
239 views

What is the difference between on and off-policy deterministic actor-critic?

In the paper Deterministic Policy Gradient Algorithms, I am really confused about chapter 4.1 and 4.2 which is "On and off-policy Deterministic Actor-Critic". I don't know what's the difference ...
3
votes
3answers
384 views

Intelligence vs. Rationality?

This just popped into my head, and I haven't thought it through, but it feels like a sound question. The definition of intelligence might still be somewhat fuzzy, possibly a factor of our evolving ...
-3
votes
1answer
112 views

Are recent advances in machine learning really “artificial” intelligence, or merely brute force and human design?

It sounds like people boast of something being "artificial" about machine learning when actually people boast that humans implemented algorithms like e.g. Monte Carlo Search (MCST) etc. I think the ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

I'm studying reinforcement learning. It seems that "state" and "observation" mean exactly the same thing. They both capture the current state of the game. Is there a difference between the two terms?...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the “fringe” in the context of search algorithms?

I encountered the algorithm below, which is the general tree search algorithm. ...
3
votes
1answer
557 views

Neural Network Cell (Node) Types

I found this nice-ish-looking diagram, but it has a wholly inadequate descriptions for each of the cell types, aside from including names. What is the definition/description of each of these cell ...
10
votes
3answers
10k views

What is the difference between a Convolutional Neural Network and a regular Neural Network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a Neural Network is a system based loosely on the human ...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

What is the concept of Tensorflow Bottlenecks?

What is the concept and how does one calculate Bottleneck values? How do these values help image classification? Please explain in simple words.
3
votes
2answers
221 views

What are different approaches used in Machine Learning?

There seem to be so many sub-fields, so I'm interested in getting a better understanding of the approaches. I'm looking for information on a single framework per answer, in order to allow for ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What is a model and how is it designed?

I read these things on the internet like My model determines the future scope..." or My model gives accurate readings about what the score would be..." What are these models? How are they ...
3
votes
4answers
176 views

What other kind of AIs exist apart from goal-driven?

Goal-driven AIs is the only kind of AI I am aware of. However, Marcus Hutter claims the following Most, if not all known facets of intelligence can be formulated as goal driven or, more generally, ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Applied probabilistically… What does probabilistically mean?

I'm new in genetic algorithms and I'm reading the A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer 2003). On section 3.5 Recombination, page 47, second paragraph said:...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Is the traditional meaning of “strong AI” outmoded?

Traditionally, "strong AI" refers to Artificial General Intelligence, the human mind understood as an algorithm (Searle, Chinese Room) and Artificial Consciousness. But recent advances in Artificial ...
5
votes
3answers
126 views

Does any Math/Algos actually mimic human intelligence?

I've been reading about AI/Deep Learning, etc. to understand robots (i.e. Elon Musk warning). But I must be missing something... Can the entire field be summed-up in this one sentence? "Neural ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Biological analogy for boosting and inhibition idea in Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM)

I've just watched the 9th episode of HTM school about the "boosting" and "inhibition" ideas. However, I couldn't find the neuroscience counterpart of these terms and concepts. Since HTM is a ...
6
votes
2answers
550 views

Terminology of deep learning: “continuous” or “dynamic”?

As I understand it from this video lecture, there are three types of deep learning: Supervised Unsupervised Reinforcement All these can serve to train a NN either only prior to its deployment or ...
4
votes
5answers
327 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between assisted and unassisted learning in relation to AI?

Is this related to supervised and unsupervised machine learning? Is it related to AI assisted human learning, and what is the distinction? Also, why is assisted machine learning seen as an ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

What is USV In NLP?

3 SVD Based Methods For this class of methods to find word embeddings (otherwise known as word vectors), we first loop over a massive data set and accumulate word co-occurrence counts in some form of ...
4
votes
2answers
778 views

Is AI entirely a part of Computer Science?

Both AI and Computer Science are Sciences, as I understood from Wikipedia, Computer Science is everything that has any relation to computers. And AI is commonly defined as Study of machines that ...
7
votes
3answers
310 views

What is meant by “known” in “A knowledge-base exhibits complete knowledge iff for every P (within its vocabulary) P or ~P is known”

I have a question as to what it means for a knowledge-base to be consistent and complete. I've been looking into non-monotonic logic and different formalisms for it from the book "knowledge ...
12
votes
5answers
595 views

Alternatives to the phrase “Artificial Intelligence”

I read a really interesting article titled "Stop Calling it Artificial Intelligence" that made a compelling critique of the name "Artificial Intelligence". The word intelligence is so broad that it's ...