Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
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57 views

How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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33 views

What is a non-stationary mean in the context of RL? [duplicate]

I have come across the expression non-stationary mean in the RL lectures by David Silver, and I really could not understand this expression and its difference from a normal mean. So what exactly is ...
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1answer
36 views

What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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71 views

What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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1answer
52 views

What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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48 views

Help and guide books in the study of AI

Useful knowledge is costly to obtain. Above all books require a substantial investment. I have bought 6 books on AI. For ...
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2answers
83 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
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1answer
30 views

Would you term Google's Captchas as Turing Test?

Quoting from Wikipedia page on Turing Test The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable ...
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29 views

What is the difference between Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning?

Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning are two AI subfields which seem to have something to do with reasoning. However, I can't find any information online about their relationship. Are ...
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1answer
69 views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
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56 views

Describing the order of a tensor

When describing tensors of higher order I feel like there is an overloading of the term dimension as it may be used to describe the order of the tensor but also the dimensionality of the... "orders"? ...
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1answer
67 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
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1answer
40 views

What is the prediction accuracy?

In simple words, what is the prediction accuracy? What is it based on? How does it help? When is it used?
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187 views

Why is it called Latent Vector?

I just learned about GAN and I'm a little bit confused about the naming of Latent Vector. First, In my understanding, a definition of a latent variable is a random variable that can't be measured ...
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49 views

What is cognitive science about? How the relationship between AI and cognitive science did begin to grow?

It is very hard to say what cognitive science is.The disagreements about the scope and methods of this new science are,however,a very healthy situation.There is much disagreement about exactly what ...
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1answer
11 views

Should I call the error “validation error” or “test error” during cross validation?

I'm using 10-fold cross validation on all models. Here you can see both plots: Since I am using k-fold cross validation, is it okay to name it "validation error vs training error" or "test error vs ...
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35 views

Why do we use the word “kernel” in the expression “Gaussian kernel”?

I've heard the expression "Gaussian kernel" in several contexts (e.g. in the kernel trick used in SVM). A Gaussian kernel usually refers to a Gaussian function (that is, a function similar to the ...
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What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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2answers
935 views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
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1answer
70 views

What's the difference between a static AI and a dynamic AI?

I recently watched a YouTube video (sorry, can't remember the link) where (a very talented) someone created what they called a "static AI". Somewhere in the video they said something along the lines ...
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1answer
62 views

Is there a Hebb neural network?

Is there a Hebb neural network? What kind of functions can it implement? Or, are there multiple "Hebb networks", that is, neural networks that learn in a Hebbian fashion?
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3answers
175 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
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2answers
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Is reinforcement learning using shallow neural networks still deep reinforcement learning?

Often times I see the term deep reinforcement learning to refer to RL algorithms that use neural networks, regardless of whether or not the networks are deep. For example, PPO (https://arxiv.org/pdf/...
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1answer
22 views

Is Superintelligence a function of strength or a category?

Super comes from the Latin and means "above". University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom defines superintelligence as "any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in ...
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2answers
71 views

Is REINFORCE the same as 'vanilla policy gradient'?

I don't know what people mean by 'vanilla policy gradient', but what comes to mind is REINFORCE, which is the simplest policy gradient algorithm I can think of. Is this an accurate statement? By ...
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244 views

What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

In general, the word "latent" means "hidden" and "to embed" means "to incorporate". In machine learning, the expressions "hidden (or latent) space" and "embedding space" occur in several contexts. ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between Problem Modelling and Problem Representation?

As I know, with problem representation is meant the formulation of the problem in a way that it can be programmed and therefore solved (for ex. you can represent the n-queens problem by using an array ...
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525 views

What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word "operator" can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as function where the ...
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1answer
39 views

What are the differences between learning by analogy, inductive learning and explanation based learning?

I have heard of the concepts of learning by analogy (which is quite self-explanatory), inductive learning and explanation-based learning. I tried to learn about inductive learning and explanation-...
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2answers
56 views

Is the definition of machine learning by Mitchell in his book “Machine Learning” valid?

The definition machine learning is as follows: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and performance measure P, if its performance at task T, as ...
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1answer
111 views

What is the difference between an episode, a trajectory and a rollout?

I often see the terms episode, trajectory and rollout to refer to basically the same thing, a list of (state, action, rewards). Are there any concrete differences between the terms or can they be used ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
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1answer
130 views

What is the relation between online learning and on-policy algorithms?

In the context of RL, there is the notion of on-policy and off-policy algorithms. I roughly understand the difference between on-policy and off-policy algorithms. Moreover, in RL, there's also the ...
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92 views

What does learning mean?

Can someone explain what is the process of learning? What does it mean to learn something?
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2answers
163 views

What is the difference between search and planning?

I'm studying Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach, Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig, specifically about search and planning arguments. I don't understand the difference between the two terms. I was ...
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1answer
82 views

What is meant by the research topic “Humanitarian AI”?

What exactly is meant by "humanitarian AI"? What research areas does this cover? AI in healthcare? Algorithmic fairness? Applications of AI for economic development? Can anyone provide links to ...
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2answers
195 views

What is a bad local minimum in machine learning?

What is "bad local minima"? The following papers all mention this expression. Eliminating all bad Local Minima from Loss Landscapes without even adding an Extra Unit limination of All Bad Local ...
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32 views

Continuous-attractor neural network explanation

I am reading about CANN, however, I do not seem to grasp what it is. Maybe someone who has worked with it can explain it? I found out about it while reading about RatSLAM. I understand that it helps ...
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146 views

What is the role of biology in AI?

Biology is used in AI terminology. What are the reasons? What does biology have to do with AI? For instance, why is the genetic algorithm used in AI? Does it fully belong to biology?
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115 views

Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
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159 views

How Swarm Intelligence can empower Blockchain?

Are there examples of applications in blockchain consensus using swarm intelligence, as opposed to classical consensus mechanisms like PoW or PBFT? Please note that recent classical consensuses, ...
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4answers
322 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
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3answers
349 views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
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1k views

What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
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3k views

Greedy best first Search Algorithm vs A* search Algorithm

Greedy best first search Algorithm take the history and then check value ans then reach to goal. In A* search Algorithm take history and also cost then calculate value then reach to goal. When we ...
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794 views

What are ontologies in AI?

What exactly are ontologies in AI? How should I write them and why are they important?
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3answers
309 views

What is the name of an AI system that learns by trial and error?

Imagine a system that controls dampers in a complex vent system that has an objective to perfectly equalize the output from each vent. The system has sensors for damper position, flow at various ...
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4answers
327 views

Can a brain be intelligent without a body?

A more formal implication of this question is whether intelligence requires a context. On Topic This question may have little value to the fields of data science or statistics, however it is of ...
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What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?