Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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What is “natural image domain”?

I see some papers use the term "natural image domain". I googled that but didn't find any explanation of it. I guess I understand the normal meaning of "natural image", such as the image people take ...
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50 views

What does “off-the-shelf” mean?

I encountered the phrase/concept off-the-shelf CNN in this paper in which authors used off-the-shelf CNN representation, OverFeat, with simple classifiers to ...
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1answer
25 views

What is a landmark in computer vision?

I guess I understand the concept of face detection, a technique specifies the location of multiple objects in the image, and draws bounding boxes on the target. The question is related to the concept ...
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2answers
71 views

Why is it called back-propagation?

While looking at the mathematics of the back-propagation algorithm for a multi-layer perceptron, I noticed that in order to find the partial derivative of the cost function with respect to a weight (...
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1answer
33 views

What are “proxy data sets” in machine learning?

The paper Assessment of Deep Generative Models for High-Resolution Synthetic Retinal Image Generation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration uses the term "proxy data sets" in this way To develop DL ...
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1answer
13 views

What does “shape information” mean in terms of GAN(generative adversarial networks)?

A paper says However, annotations used as inputs to C-GAN are typically based only on shape information, which can result in undesirable intensity distributions in the resulting artificially-...
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1answer
40 views

What is the type of problem requiring to rate images on a scale?

I'm new to the topic, but I've used some off the shelf knowledge about computer vision for classifying images. For example, you can easily generate labels that can determine whether or not e.g. a ...
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1answer
41 views

What is teacher forcing?

In the paper Neural Programmer-Interpreters, the authors use the teacher forcing technique, but what exactly is it?
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1answer
34 views

What is an end-to-end AI project?

I often read about the so-called end-to-end AI (or analytics) projects, but I couldn't find a definition of it. What is an end-to-end AI project? Can someone explain what is meant/expected when ...
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1answer
47 views

Are there names for neural networks with a well-defined layer or neuron characteristics?

Are there names for neural networks with a well-defined layer or neuron characteristics? For example, a matrix that has the same number of rows and columns is called a square matrix. Is there an ...
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1answer
50 views

Is the following statement about neural networks overclaimed?

Is the following statement about neural networks overclaimed? Neural networks are iterative methods that minimize a loss function defined on the output layer of neurons. I wrote this statement in ...
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70 views

What is the name of this neural network architecture with layers that are also connected to non-neighbouring layers?

Consider a feedforward neural network. Suppose you have a layer of inputs, which is feedforward to a hidden layer, and feedforward both the input and hidden layers to an output layer. Is there a name ...
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1answer
331 views

Are model-free and off-policy algorithms the same?

In respect of RL, is model-free and off-policy the same thing, just different terminology? If not, what are the differences? I've read that the policy can be thought of as 'the brain', or decision ...
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Why are the terms classification and prediction used as synonyms in the context of deep learning?

Why are the terms classification and prediction used as synonyms especially when it comes to deep learning? For example, a CNN predicts the handwritten digit. To me, a prediction is telling the next ...
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29 views

What is the difference between the concepts “known environment” and “deterministic environment”?

According to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach", "In a known environment, the outcomes (or outcome probabilities if the environment is stochastic) for all actions are given.", and ...
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2answers
131 views

What is “Computational Linguistics”?

It's not clear to me whether or not someone whose work aims to improve an NLP system may be called a "Computational Linguist" even when she/he doesn't modify the algorithm directly by coding. Let's ...
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What does “episodic training” mean?

I'm reading the book Hands-On Meta Learning with Python, and in Prototypical networks said: So, we use episodic training—for each episode, we randomly sample a few data points from each class in ...
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1answer
49 views

Are CNN, LSTM, GRU and transformer AGI or computational intelligence tools?

Will CNN, LSTM, GRU and transformer be better classified as Computational Intelligence (CI) tools or Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) tools? The term CI arose back when some codes like neural ...
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36 views

What role do distractors play in natural language processing?

I’m doing research on natural language processing (NLP). I’d like to put together my own model. However, I'm running into a concept I am not familiar with, namely, distractors. A google search does ...
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What is the term for an RNN that is a completely connected directed graph?

There seems to be a severe problem with the taxonomy of neural network topologies. What I'd like to know is the term I should use to search for the most general topology: completely connected ...
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1answer
74 views

What are the characteristics of a deep learning AI?

I have experience in making several Artificial Neural Networks and some programs which may be classified as an Artificial Intelligence by using Tensorflow.js and Brain.js. In order to produce ...
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35 views

What is “temporal depth”?

I need some explanation about the following paragraph (page 3) from the paper A Novel Approach for Robust Multi Human Action Detection and Recognition based on 3-Dimentional Convolutional Neural ...
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2answers
101 views

What is the difference between a learning algorithm and a hypothesis?

What's the distinction between a learning algorithm $A$ and a hypothesis $f$? I'm looking for a few concrete examples, if possible. From what I understand, one way to vary the hypothesis $f$ would be ...
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How can an AI train itself if no one is telling it if its answer is correct or wrong?

I am a programmer but not in the field of AI. A question constantly confuses me is that how can an AI be trained if we human beings are not telling it its calculation is correct? For example, news ...
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248 views

What is the “semantic level”?

I am reading the paper Hierarchical Attention-Based Recurrent Highway Networks for Time Series Prediction (2018) by Yunzhe Tao et al. In this paper, they use several times the expression "semantic ...
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What does end-to-end training mean?

In simple words, what does end-to-end training mean, in the context of deep learning?
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469 views

What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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243 views

What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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1answer
158 views

What is convergence in machine learning?

I came across this answer on Quora, but it was pretty sparse. I'm looking for specific meanings in the context of machine learning, but also mathematical and economic notions of the term in general.
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What does “immediate vector-valued feedback” mean?

In the book Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning, James Stone says With supervised learning, the response to each input vector is an output ...
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3answers
221 views

What is the name of an AI whose primary goal is to create a better AI?

A general AI x creates another AI y which is better than x. y creates an AI better than itself. And so on, with each generation's primary goal to create a better AI. Is there a name for this. By ...
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1answer
680 views

What does 'democratizing AI' exactly mean?

In my AI literature research, I often notice authors use term 'democratizing AI', especially in the AutoML area. I think I have an idea of what this means, but I would like to ask you for some more ...
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1answer
217 views

What are sim2sim, sim2real and real2real?

Recently, I always hear about the terms sim2sim, sim2real and real2real. Will anyone explain the meaning/motivation of these terms (in DL/RL research community)? What are the challenges in this ...
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What are the exact meaning of “lower-order structure” and “higher-order structure” in this paper?

I recently read a paper on community detection in networks. In the paper EdMot: An Edge Enhancement Approach for Motif-aware Community Detection, the authors consider the "lower-order structure" of ...
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Terminology for the use of datasets as data points

As computers are getting bigger better and faster, the concept of what constitutes a single datum is changing. For example, in the world of pen-and-paper, we might take readings of temperature over ...
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32 views

What is the correct name for state explosion from sensor discretization?

The position of a robot on a map contains of an x/y value, for example $position(x=100.23,y=400.78)$. The internal representation of the variable is a 32bit float which is equal to 4 byte in the RAM ...
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54 views

What is “Word Sense Disambiguation”?

I recently came across this article which cites a paper which apparently won outstanding paper in ACL 2019. The theme is that it solved a longstanding problem called Word Sense Disambiguation. What ...
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255 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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2answers
172 views

What are the major differences between cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions?

I find the terms cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions to be interchangeable, but any kind of minor difference explained is appreciated.
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270 views

What is the difference between learning without forgetting and transfer learning?

I would like to incrementally train my model with my current dataset and I asked this question on Github issues, which is what I'm using SSD MobileNet v1: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/issues/...
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56 views

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?
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74 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
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What is the meaning of the words 'bias' and 'variance' in RL?

In algorithms like MC/TD (tabular value approximation) two of the metrics used to measure their performance are the bias and the variance. What do these terms mean? And which characteristic of the ...
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Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
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80 views

How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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1answer
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What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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207 views

What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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331 views

What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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146 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...