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Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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What is the role of biology is in AI?

Biology is used in AI terminology. What are the reasons? What does biology have to do with AI? For instance, why is the genetic algorithm used in AI? Does it fully belong to biology?
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Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
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How Swarm Intelligence can empower Blockchain?

Are there examples of applications in blockchain consensus using swarm intelligence, as opposed to classical consensus mechanisms like PoW or PBFT? Please note that recent classical consensuses, ...
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4answers
178 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
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What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
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What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
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Greedy best first Search Algorithm vs A* search Algorithm

Greedy best first search Algorithm take the history and then check value ans then reach to goal. In A* search Algorithm take history and also cost then calculate value then reach to goal. When we ...
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What is the name of an AI system that learns by trial and error?

Imagine a system that controls dampers in a complex vent system that has an objective to perfectly equalize the output from each vent. The system has sensors for damper position, flow at various ...
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279 views

Can a brain be intelligent without a body?

A more formal implication of this question is whether intelligence requires a context. On Topic This question may have little value to the fields of data science or statistics, however it is of ...
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Differences between an agent that thinks rationally and an agent that acts rationally?

Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig pointed out 4 four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence: systems that think/act humanly/rationally. What are the differences between an agent that ...
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What does “stationary” mean in the context of reinforcement learning?

I think I've seen the expressions "stationary data", "stationary dynamics" and "stationary policy", among others, in the context of reinforcement learning. What does it mean? I think stationary policy ...
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118 views

In what ways is the term “topology” applied to Artificial Intelligence?

I have a only a general understanding of General Topology, and want to understand the scope of the term "topology" in relation to the field of Artificial Intelligence. In what ways are topological ...
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191 views

Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence

Having analysed,reviewed quite a number of user questions inline with answers concerning AI,sometimes I understand nor take note that AI community does not try much to avoid the term computational ...
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661 views

What is the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic. At least I know they are different from Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C), as A3C adds ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between policy and action in Reinforcement Learning?

I'm confused with the two terminology - action and policy - in Reinforcement Learning. As far as I know, the action is: It is what the agent makes in a given state. However, the book I'm reading ...
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What is a “trajectory” in reinforcement learning?

I'm now learning about reinforcement learning, but I just found the word "trajectory" in this answer. However, I'm not sure what it means. I read a few books on the Reinforcement Learning but none of ...
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Listen, Attend and Spell

I was reading the Listen, Attend and Spell paper and did not understand some terms/concepts. I need help with the following: what is pyramid Bidirectional LSTM and how it helps to reduce the time ...
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1answer
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Is it a valid Deep Neural Network?

For a regression task, I have sequences of training data and if I define the layers of deep neural network to be: Layers=[ sequenceInputLayer(featuredimension) reluLayer dropoutLayer(0.05) ...
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279 views

Intelligence vs. Rationality?

This just popped into my head, and I haven't thought it through, but it feels like a sound question. The definition of intelligence might still be somewhat fuzzy, possibly a factor of our evolving ...
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1answer
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Are recent advances in machine learning really “artificial” intelligence, or merely brute force and human design?

It sounds like people boast of something being "artificial" about machine learning when actually people boast that humans implemented algorithms like e.g. Monte Carlo Search (MCST) etc. I think the ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

I'm studying reinforcement learning. It seems that "state" and "observation" mean exactly the same thing. They both capture the current state of the game. Is there a difference between the two terms?...
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1answer
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What is the “fringe” in the context of search algorithms?

I encountered the algorithm below, which is the general tree search algorithm. ...
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1answer
358 views

Neural Network Cell (Node) Types

I found this nice-ish-looking diagram, but it has a wholly inadequate descriptions for each of the cell types, aside from including names. What is the definition/description of each of these cell ...
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What is the difference between a Convolutional Neural Network and a regular Neural Network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a Neural Network is a system based loosely on the human ...
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What is the concept of Tensorflow Bottlenecks?

What is the concept and how does one calculate Bottleneck values? How do these values help image classification? Please explain in simple words.
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What are different approaches used in Machine Learning?

There seem to be so many sub-fields, so I'm interested in getting a better understanding of the approaches. I'm looking for information on a single framework per answer, in order to allow for ...
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1answer
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What is a model and how is it designed?

I read these things on the internet like My model determines the future scope..." or My model gives accurate readings about what the score would be..." What are these models? How are they ...
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What other kind of AIs exist apart from goal-driven?

Goal-driven AIs is the only kind of AI I am aware of. However, Marcus Hutter claims the following Most, if not all known facets of intelligence can be formulated as goal driven or, more generally, ...
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Applied probabilistically… What does probabilistically mean?

I'm new in genetic algorithms and I'm reading the A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer 2003). On section 3.5 Recombination, page 47, second paragraph said:...
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1answer
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Is the traditional meaning of “strong AI” outmoded?

Traditionally, "strong AI" refers to Artificial General Intelligence, the human mind understood as an algorithm (Searle, Chinese Room) and Artificial Consciousness. But recent advances in Artificial ...
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Does any Math/Algos actually mimic human intelligence?

I've been reading about AI/Deep Learning, etc. to understand robots (i.e. Elon Musk warning). But I must be missing something... Can the entire field be summed-up in this one sentence? "Neural ...
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1answer
67 views

Biological analogy for boosting and inhibition idea in Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM)

I've just watched the 9th episode of HTM school about the "boosting" and "inhibition" ideas. However, I couldn't find the neuroscience counterpart of these terms and concepts. Since HTM is a ...
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Terminology of deep learning: “continuous” or “dynamic”?

As I understand it from this video lecture, there are three types of deep learning: Supervised Unsupervised Reinforcement All these can serve to train a NN either only prior to its deployment or ...
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Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
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What is the difference between assisted and unassisted learning in relation to AI?

Is this related to supervised and unsupervised machine learning? Is it related to AI assisted human learning, and what is the distinction? Also, why is assisted machine learning seen as an ...
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What is USV In NLP?

3 SVD Based Methods For this class of methods to find word embeddings (otherwise known as word vectors), we first loop over a massive data set and accumulate word co-occurrence counts in some form of ...
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2answers
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Is AI entirely a part of Computer Science?

Both AI and Computer Science are Sciences, as I understood from Wikipedia, Computer Science is everything that has any relation to computers. And AI is commonly defined as Study of machines that ...
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What is meant by “known” in “A knowledge-base exhibits complete knowledge iff for every P (within its vocabulary) P or ~P is known”

I have a question as to what it means for a knowledge-base to be consistent and complete. I've been looking into non-monotonic logic and different formalisms for it from the book "knowledge ...
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Alternatives to the phrase “Artificial Intelligence”

I read a really interesting article titled "Stop Calling it Artificial Intelligence" that made a compelling critique of the name "Artificial Intelligence". The word intelligence is so broad that it's ...
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What is difference between edge computing and Federated learning?

I recently read about federated learning introduced by google,but it works same the way like edge computing. I unable to find right explanation?
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What are bottleneck features?

What are bottleneck features? (Mentioned here https://blog.keras.io/building-powerful-image-classification-models-using-very-little-data.html). Do they change with the architecture that is used? Are ...
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What is the difference between Memetic Algorithms and Genetic Algorithms?

Can someone please explain the difference between Memetic Algorithms and Genetic Algorithms? Is an indivudal's lifetime learning part of memetic algorithms?
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What's the term for death by dissolving in AI?

What's the term (if such exists) for merging with AI (e.g. via neural lace) and becoming so diluted (e.g. 1:10000) that it effectively results in a death of the original self? It's not quite "digital ...
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1answer
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“Goodness” of a position in an Evaluation Function?

The Wikipedia states that: "An evaluation function, also known as a heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function, is a function used by game-playing programs to estimate the value or ...
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2answers
231 views

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?
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558 views

What are the state space and the state transition function in AI?

I'm studying for my AI final exam, and I'm stuck in the state space representation. I understand initial and goal states, but what I don't understand is the state space and state transition function. ...
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1answer
332 views

Terminology: DBN vs stacked RBM

I'm just diving in this whole new area of knowledge; i happened to lost in all the concepts a bit. What is difference between stacked RBM and deep belief network? Are they the same entity? If so, ...
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1answer
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Are Cellular Neural Networks one type of Neural Networks?

I am researching Cellular Neural Networks and have already read Chua's two articles (1988). In cellular neural networks, a cell is only in relation with its neighbors. So its is easy to use it for ...
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1answer
221 views

What does the term “closed expression” mean?

In the field of logic systems there is a property for reasoning algorithms called incompleteness or incompletion. In this context the phrase "any closed expression that is not derivable inside the ...
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What is the difference between Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science?

Sometimes I understand that people doing cognitive science try to avoid the term artificial intelligence. The feeling I get is that there is a need to put some distance to the GOFAI. Another ...