Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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What is the difference between a learning algorithm and a hypothesis?

What's the distinction between a learning algorithm $A$ and a hypothesis $f$? I'm looking for a few concrete examples, if possible. From what I understand, one way to vary the hypothesis $f$ would be ...
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13k views

How can an AI train itself if no one is telling it if its answer is correct or wrong?

I am a programmer but not in the field of AI. A question constantly confuses me is that how can an AI be trained if we human beings are not telling it its calculation is correct? For example, news ...
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230 views

What is the “semantic level”?

I am reading the paper Hierarchical Attention-Based Recurrent Highway Networks for Time Series Prediction (2018) by Yunzhe Tao et al. In this paper, they use several times the expression "semantic ...
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140 views

What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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1answer
202 views

What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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1answer
25 views

Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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1answer
49 views

What is convergence in machine learning?

I came across this answer on Quora, but it was pretty sparse. I'm looking for specific meanings in the context of machine learning, but also mathematical and economic notions of the term in general.
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1answer
45 views

What does “immediate vector-valued feedback” mean?

In the book Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning, James Stone says With supervised learning, the response to each input vector is an output ...
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3answers
212 views

What is the name of an AI whose primary goal is to create a better AI?

A general AI x creates another AI y which is better than x. y creates an AI better than itself. And so on, with each generation's primary goal to create a better AI. Is there a name for this. By ...
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1answer
669 views

What does 'democratizing AI' exactly mean?

In my AI literature research, I often notice authors use term 'democratizing AI', especially in the AutoML area. I think I have an idea of what this means, but I would like to ask you for some more ...
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1answer
47 views

What are sim2sim, sim2real and real2real?

Recently, I always hear about the terms sim2sim, sim2real and real2real. Will anyone explain the meaning/motivation of these terms (in DL/RL research community)? What are the challenges in this ...
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What are the exact meaning of “lower-order structure” and “higher-order structure” in this paper?

I recently read a paper on community detection in networks. In the paper EdMot: An Edge Enhancement Approach for Motif-aware Community Detection, the authors consider the "lower-order structure" of ...
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1answer
46 views

Terminology for the use of datasets as data points

As computers are getting bigger better and faster, the concept of what constitutes a single datum is changing. For example, in the world of pen-and-paper, we might take readings of temperature over ...
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29 views

What is the correct name for state explosion from sensor discretization?

The position of a robot on a map contains of an x/y value, for example $position(x=100.23,y=400.78)$. The internal representation of the variable is a 32bit float which is equal to 4 byte in the RAM ...
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44 views

What is “Word Sense Disambiguation”?

I recently came across this article which cites a paper which apparently won outstanding paper in ACL 2019. The theme is that it solved a longstanding problem called Word Sense Disambiguation. What ...
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1answer
124 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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62 views

What are the major differences between cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions?

I find the terms cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions to be interchangeable, but any kind of minor difference explained is appreciated.
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What is the difference between learning without forgetting and transfer learning?

I would like to incrementally train my model with my current dataset and I asked this question on Github issues, which is what I'm using SSD MobileNet v1: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/issues/...
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1answer
54 views

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?
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1answer
68 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
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What is the meaning of the words 'bias' and 'variance' in RL?

In algorithms like MC/TD (tabular value approximation) two of the metrics used to measure their performance are the bias and the variance. What do these terms mean? And which characteristic of the ...
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Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
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How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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1answer
45 views

What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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1answer
67 views

What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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134 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
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36 views

Would you term Google's Captchas as Turing Test?

Quoting from Wikipedia page on Turing Test The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable ...
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What is the difference between Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning?

Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning are two AI subfields which seem to have something to do with reasoning. However, I can't find any information online about their relationship. Are ...
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1answer
205 views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
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65 views

Describing the order of a tensor

When describing tensors of higher order I feel like there is an overloading of the term dimension as it may be used to describe the order of the tensor but also the dimensionality of the... "orders"? ...
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1answer
77 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
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What is the prediction accuracy?

In simple words, what is the prediction accuracy? What is it based on? How does it help? When is it used?
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413 views

Why is it called Latent Vector?

I just learned about GAN and I'm a little bit confused about the naming of Latent Vector. First, In my understanding, a definition of a latent variable is a random variable that can't be measured ...
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1answer
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Should I call the error “validation error” or “test error” during cross validation?

I'm using 10-fold cross validation on all models. Here you can see both plots: Since I am using k-fold cross validation, is it okay to name it "validation error vs training error" or "test error vs ...
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Why do we use the word “kernel” in the expression “Gaussian kernel”?

I've heard the expression "Gaussian kernel" in several contexts (e.g. in the kernel trick used in SVM). A Gaussian kernel usually refers to a Gaussian function (that is, a function similar to the ...
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What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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979 views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
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1answer
201 views

What's the difference between a static AI and a dynamic AI?

I recently watched a YouTube video (sorry, can't remember the link) where (a very talented) someone created what they called a "static AI". Somewhere in the video they said something along the lines ...
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1answer
67 views

Is there a Hebb neural network?

Is there a Hebb neural network? What kind of functions can it implement? Or, are there multiple "Hebb networks", that is, neural networks that learn in a Hebbian fashion?
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3answers
178 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
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Is reinforcement learning using shallow neural networks still deep reinforcement learning?

Often times I see the term deep reinforcement learning to refer to RL algorithms that use neural networks, regardless of whether or not the networks are deep. For example, PPO (https://arxiv.org/pdf/...
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Is Superintelligence a function of strength or a category?

Super comes from the Latin and means "above". University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom defines superintelligence as "any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in ...
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Is REINFORCE the same as 'vanilla policy gradient'?

I don't know what people mean by 'vanilla policy gradient', but what comes to mind is REINFORCE, which is the simplest policy gradient algorithm I can think of. Is this an accurate statement? By ...
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What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

In general, the word "latent" means "hidden" and "to embed" means "to incorporate". In machine learning, the expressions "hidden (or latent) space" and "embedding space" occur in several contexts. ...
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What is the difference between a problem representation and problem modelling?

As far as I know, a problem representation is the formulation of the problem in a way that it can be programmed and therefore solved (for example, you can represent the $N$-queens problem by using an ...
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What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as function where the domain ...
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What are the differences between learning by analogy, inductive learning and explanation based learning?

I have heard of the concepts of learning by analogy (which is quite self-explanatory), inductive learning and explanation-based learning. I tried to learn about inductive learning and explanation-...
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Is the definition of machine learning by Mitchell in his book “Machine Learning” valid?

The definition machine learning is as follows: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and performance measure P, if its performance at task T, as ...
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What is the difference between an episode, a trajectory and a rollout?

I often see the terms episode, trajectory and rollout to refer to basically the same thing, a list of (state, action, rewards). Are there any concrete differences between the terms or can they be used ...