Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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0answers
19 views

What is “temporal depth”?

I need some explanation about the following paragraph (page 3) from the paper A Novel Approach for Robust Multi Human Action Detection and Recognition based on 3-Dimentional Convolutional Neural ...
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How can an AI train itself if no one is telling it if its answer is correct or wrong?

I am a programmer but not in the field of AI. A question constantly confuses me is that how can an AI be trained if we human beings are not telling it its calculation is correct? For example, news ...
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What is the difference between memetic algorithms and genetic algorithms?

What is the difference between memetic algorithms and genetic algorithms? Is an individual's lifetime a learning part of memetic algorithms?
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98 views

What is the difference between learning without forgetting and transfer learning?

I would like to incrementally train my model with my current dataset and I asked this question on Github issues, which is what I'm using SSD MobileNet v1: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/issues/...
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65 views

What is the difference between a learning algorithm and a hypothesis?

What's the distinction between a learning algorithm $A$ and a hypothesis $f$? I'm looking for a few concrete examples, if possible. From what I understand, one way to vary the hypothesis $f$ would be ...
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939 views

Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence

Having analysed,reviewed quite a number of user questions inline with answers concerning AI,sometimes I understand nor take note that AI community does not try much to avoid the term computational ...
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141 views

What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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1answer
230 views

What is the “semantic level”?

I am reading the paper Hierarchical Attention-Based Recurrent Highway Networks for Time Series Prediction (2018) by Yunzhe Tao et al. In this paper, they use several times the expression "semantic ...
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2answers
93 views

Why do we need learning in unsupervised learning? [duplicate]

I am not clear with the concept that an unsupervised model learns. We are giving an input and output to the supervised model, so that it can generate a particular value, pattern or something out of it ...
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425 views

What is “backprop”?

What does "backprop" mean? Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?
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1answer
261 views

How Swarm Intelligence can empower Blockchain?

Are there examples of applications in blockchain consensus using swarm intelligence, as opposed to classical consensus mechanisms like PoW or PBFT? Please note that recent classical consensuses, ...
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1answer
202 views

What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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1answer
25 views

Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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1answer
32 views

What is the difference between a problem representation and problem modelling?

As far as I know, a problem representation is the formulation of the problem in a way that it can be programmed and therefore solved (for example, you can represent the $N$-queens problem by using an ...
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1answer
49 views

What is convergence in machine learning?

I came across this answer on Quora, but it was pretty sparse. I'm looking for specific meanings in the context of machine learning, but also mathematical and economic notions of the term in general.
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3answers
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What is the name of an AI whose primary goal is to create a better AI?

A general AI x creates another AI y which is better than x. y creates an AI better than itself. And so on, with each generation's primary goal to create a better AI. Is there a name for this. By ...
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1answer
45 views

What does “immediate vector-valued feedback” mean?

In the book Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning, James Stone says With supervised learning, the response to each input vector is an output ...
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1answer
669 views

What does 'democratizing AI' exactly mean?

In my AI literature research, I often notice authors use term 'democratizing AI', especially in the AutoML area. I think I have an idea of what this means, but I would like to ask you for some more ...
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What is the purpose of an activation function in neural networks?

It is said that activation functions in neural networks help introduce non-linearity. What does this mean? What does non-linearity mean in this context? How does the introduction of this non-...
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1answer
202 views

What's the difference between a static AI and a dynamic AI?

I recently watched a YouTube video (sorry, can't remember the link) where (a very talented) someone created what they called a "static AI". Somewhere in the video they said something along the lines ...
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1answer
47 views

What are sim2sim, sim2real and real2real?

Recently, I always hear about the terms sim2sim, sim2real and real2real. Will anyone explain the meaning/motivation of these terms (in DL/RL research community)? What are the challenges in this ...
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1answer
38 views

What are “function terms” in the context of an ontology?

I was going through the Wikipedia page on ontology components and noticed something that I had been hoping to find, for a long time. In the components' overview it mentioned: Function terms: ...
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1answer
126 views

What is a weighted average in a non-stationary k-armed bandit problem?

In the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (page 25), by Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto, there is a discussion of the k-armed bandit problem, where the expected reward from the bandits ...
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2answers
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Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
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What are the exact meaning of “lower-order structure” and “higher-order structure” in this paper?

I recently read a paper on community detection in networks. In the paper EdMot: An Edge Enhancement Approach for Motif-aware Community Detection, the authors consider the "lower-order structure" of ...
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What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?
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1answer
46 views

Terminology for the use of datasets as data points

As computers are getting bigger better and faster, the concept of what constitutes a single datum is changing. For example, in the world of pen-and-paper, we might take readings of temperature over ...
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346 views

What is difference between edge computing and federated learning?

I recently read about federated learning introduced by Google, but it seems to be like edge computing. What is the difference between edge computing and federated learning?
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What are the major differences between cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions?

I find the terms cost, loss, error, fitness, utility, objective, criterion functions to be interchangeable, but any kind of minor difference explained is appreciated.
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What is the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic. At least I know they are different from Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C), as A3C adds ...
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1answer
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What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as function where the domain ...
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What is the concept of Tensorflow Bottlenecks?

What is the concept and how does one calculate Bottleneck values? How do these values help image classification? Please explain in simple words.
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1answer
29 views

What is the correct name for state explosion from sensor discretization?

The position of a robot on a map contains of an x/y value, for example $position(x=100.23,y=400.78)$. The internal representation of the variable is a 32bit float which is equal to 4 byte in the RAM ...
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3answers
61 views

Is Superintelligence a function of strength or a category?

Super comes from the Latin and means "above". University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom defines superintelligence as "any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in ...
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44 views

What is “Word Sense Disambiguation”?

I recently came across this article which cites a paper which apparently won outstanding paper in ACL 2019. The theme is that it solved a longstanding problem called Word Sense Disambiguation. What ...
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1answer
126 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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1answer
54 views

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?
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49 views

What is the meaning of the words 'bias' and 'variance' in RL?

In algorithms like MC/TD (tabular value approximation) two of the metrics used to measure their performance are the bias and the variance. What do these terms mean? And which characteristic of the ...
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1answer
68 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
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134 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
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Can simple tools like the Pascaline be considered artificial intelligence? [duplicate]

Question in Brief The popular usage (I'm not sure of exact technical usage), limits the term "artificial intelligence" to only the "high-end" tasks; as if AI has something limited to "high-end". But "...
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72 views

How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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1answer
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What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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1answer
68 views

What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
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3answers
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What is the difference between a Convolutional Neural Network and a regular Neural Network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a Neural Network is a system based loosely on the human ...
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1answer
104 views

Are there any DeepQA-based computers other than Watson?

My understanding is that Watson is the name of the computer, and DeepQA is the name of the software or technology. They are both correlated. Are there any computers/technologies other than Watson ...
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What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
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1answer
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Would you term Google's Captchas as Turing Test?

Quoting from Wikipedia page on Turing Test The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable ...